Formulation and Evaluation of Dermatological Products for Topical Delivery
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TitleFormulation and Evaluation of Dermatological Products for Topical Delivery
AbstractABSTRACT FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DERMATOLOGICAL PRODUCTS FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY Under the direction of Dr. Ajay.K.Banga, Professor and Chair of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mercer University The use of topical route for drug delivery relies on the formulation of effective dermatological products, which maximize drug availability at the target site with minimal adverse effects. In this study, the first aim was to formulate an anhydrous gel formulation containing sertaconazole nitrate for the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections. In vitro techniques like tape stripping and cell culture model was used to evaluate the topical absorption and irritation potential of the formulation. The drug concentration-stratum corneum depth profile showed that the formulation attained sufficient levels to treat any potential fungal infections and was non-irritant in nature. In case of analgesics like menthol, many over-the counter-products are easily available in the market. However, there is limited information available on the topical absorption of this compound using human skin which could also be affected by drug-vehicle interactions. Hence, the second aim used in vitro permeation and rheological analysis of different vehicles in order to evaluate the skin absorption of menthol. Skin distribution studies showed that the drug was able to penetrate in sufficient concentrations while rheological characterization helped to understand the structural stability of the topical formulations. In addition to permeation, in vitro release testing has been used frequently as an important tool in the development and formulation of topical vehicles. The third aim involved formulation of different semi-solid dermatological vehicles and evaluation of their rheological properties and in vitro release by using diclofenac sodium as the active ingredient. The formulations were found to be easily spreadable and predominantly viscoelastic in nature. The release test was able to discriminate between the different semi-solid formulations and found to be accurate and reproducible. The fourth aim involved the formulation of a positively charged nanoemulsion which could be potentially used to enhance the topical delivery of minoxidil. This study also used an active enhancement technique like iontophoresis to evaluate its effect on drug delivery. Differential tape stripping showed that the formation in combination with iontophoresis effectively enhanced the topical absorption of minoxidil with reduced systemic uptake. Thus, using in vitro techniques effectively helps in the optimization of topical formulations with enhanced efficacy and safety.