• Chemotherapy Induced Cardiotoxicity

      Proto, Gabrielle Elizabeth; Salmon, Arlene (2021)
      Cancer affects approximately 38.4% of the population and is the second leading cause of death in America. Treatment for cancer has improved and the number of cancer survivors is expected to increase from about 11.7 million in 2007 to 18 million by 2020. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapies for cancer can have long lasting effects for patients. One notable side effect is cardiotoxicity, most commonly caused by anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents. There are several detection methods for anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity and treatment options to manage and prevent heart failure. The most promising diagnostic procedure has been tracking the decline of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF). The only approved treatment by the FDA is Dexrazoxane, though it is only approved for patients under 16. Adult patients are treated prophylactically with organic heart failure medications. Efficient detection and rapid treatment have become a high priority due to the increasing number of cancer survivors and therefore increased number of patients who will experience cardiotoxicity from their treatments.
    • Emerging Migraine Treatment Monoclonal Antibodies: Pathophysiology, Efficacy, and Recommendations

      Oliver, Hannah; Salmon, Arlene (2021)
      Migraines cause immobilizing headaches and are amongst the top causes of disability worldwide. In the past, migraines were understood as a vascular disorder, but in recent years researchers have attributed the cause of migraines to be a series of neurovascular events. This cascade of events causes a release of peptides, most notably, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) which triggers pain signals to be released from the trigeminal neurons in the brain. This development in comprehension has led to the production of a new treatment, monoclonal antibodies targeting CGRP, to treat migraines. Since 2018, four new drugs of monoclonal antibodies have been approved by the FDA and each drug has shown significant decrease in monthly migraine days when compared to placebo in people who suffer from episodic and chronic migraines. Today these medications are recommended in patients with migraines who have failed simple abortive therapy.