• Transformative School Counseling: An Examination Of The Interaction Between Professional Identity And Leadership Skills

      Bryant, Necole C.
      School counselors have a responsibility to attend to the numerous social, psychological, and environmental factors in which students encounter on a daily basis. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) (2012) and the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) (2016) stated professional identify and leadership are encompassed into the roles and responsibilities of the school counselor. The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the interaction between leadership skills and professional identity among school counselors in training, practicing school counselors, and counselor educators. An informed consent, a demographic survey, the Professional Identity Scale in Counseling (PISC), and the School Counselor Leadership Survey (SCLS) were administered to participants in the study. This study utilized purposive sampling technique. Participants were recruited via email from within four southeastern region school counseling associations and the Counselor Education and Supervision Network (CESNET). Instruments were administered using an online platform and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used as the statistical analysis test. Results of the study revealed there was no statistical difference between professional identity and leadership skills among school counselors in training, practicing school counselors, and counselor educators. In addition, no interaction effect was found between the two variables. Implications and possibilities for futures research are discussed. Keywords: school counselor, counselor educator, professional identity, leadership skills
    • Transgender Student Perceptions of Institutional Approaches that Facilitate Persistence and Graduation

      Mooring, Stephanie Ann; Tift College of Education
      The increased visibility of transgender students in higher education institutions highlights the need for institutions to recognize the types of barriers encountered by this student population in order to implement institutional approaches to help retain these students. As such, this study sought to understand the impact of institutional approaches on transgender students’ decisions to persist in college as well as how these students conceptualize their successful progression in their institutions. To explore the perceptions of transgender college students regarding their higher education experiences, the researcher conducted qualitative research using Tinto’s (1975, 1988) theory of student departure as the theoretical framework. The interviews of 13 participants were analyzed using thematic analysis methods, which resulted in two themes: Barriers Encountered by Students and Ability to Persist. Findings show that participants came to their institutions expecting to find an accepting and supportive environment; however, most participants were disappointed by the lack of adequate support resources provided by their institutions. To compensate for this lack of institutional support, participants took a do-it-yourself approach to constructing their own support systems. The findings of this study identify improper pronoun usage, the attitudes and lack of trans competency of faculty and staff, inadequate counseling centers, trans incompetent LGBT groups, and a lack of transgender programming events as barriers that participants encountered at their higher education institutions. The findings also indicate that institutions can better serve this student population by hiring transgender faculty and staff, making the campus community more trans competent through educational programming, and providing safe access to physical spaces and adequate support. Recommendations for future research include examining how institutions evaluate their transgender student supports, exploring the thoughts and attitudes of professors toward sexual minority students, comparing different pronoun use protocols as well as faculty and student perceptions of each method, and exploring the attitudes of cisgender college students toward their transgender peers.
    • Treatment of Neuropathic Pain Using 1-O-Hexyl-2,3,5- Trimethylhydroquinone (HTHQ)

      Shoaga, Elizabeth Omolara; School of Medicine
      Neuropathic pain is caused by a primary lesion or injury to the nervous system and can be spontaneous, with no obvious peripheral stimulus. Pain results from the complex interplay between signaling systems and individual perception. Neuropathic and chronic pain effect more than 100 million Americans while costing the country billions of dollars annually to treat and manage. The purpose of this research study was to discover if preemptive or post-injury treatment with 1-O-Hexyl-2,3,5- trimethylhydroquinone (HTHQ), a hydroquinone monoalkyl ether known for its antioxidative abilities, effectively alleviates neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation in rats. In order to test the effectiveness of HTHQ in reducing neuropathic pain, we began by taking preliminary baseline behavior assessments to test animal pain response prior to injury. Some animals were treated with HTHQ for three consecutive days prior to the performance of partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) surgery, while some were treated each day beginning four days after the induction of injury. Animal behavior was observed again for 10 days after nerve injury and drug treatment. The levels of antioxidant and pro-inflammatory proteins were analyzed using the western blot technique in order to determine the effectiveness of HTHQ at treating neuropathic pain. Preliminary findings suggests that treatment with HTHQ three days prior to nerve ligation surgery showed an increase in antioxidant catalase, an enzyme responsible for converting hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, in the spinal cords of injured rats compared to those that were not treated 10-days after nerve injury. Our findings also demonstrate that rats treated with HTHQ three days prior to nerve injury showed an increase in antioxidative protein SOD2 but also decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory protein IL-1ß compared to vehicle treated neuropathic rats. There were no therapeutic changes seen in rats treated with HTHQ four days after pSNL surgery.
    • Truth By Surprise: Subverting Expectations Of The Kingdom Of God Through Homiletical Humor

      Naeve, Rory
      The congregants of First Baptist Church, Oak Ridge, Tennessee are like people in many churches around the United States. They are long-time church-goers who have attended Sunday school lessons and heard sermons on biblical texts enough to breed a familiarity that can prevent further insight. The preacher must find a way to bypass familiarity, allowing hearers to experience the text anew. This study measures how six sermons employing humor subvert expectations to give a renewed experience of Jesus’ descriptions of the Kingdom of God in the parables in Matthew’s Gospel. Twelve participants were interviewed in three sessions over six weeks to measure how effective humor is in communicating the complex and counter-cultural Kingdom of God that Jesus expresses in the parables. The group was interviewed together in three semi-structured sessions to allow participants to give their insights and experiences with limited researcher prompting. Participant responses indicate that humor indeed aided in experiencing familiar parables with a new perspective, a sense of personal interaction, and a desire to act upon the principles of the Kingdom as presented in the sermons. Humor can provide a fresh experience for preachers and congregations alike. Further study should be conducted in utilizing humor to preach texts of other biblical genres, such as the Hebrew prophets, proverbs, psalms, and epistles. Humor is a broad category, and some research into the congregation’s varied responses to specific types of humor (wit, anecdote, or satire) could be illuminating.
    • Two Worlds, One War: An Examination Of The Islamic East And Christian West Prior To The First Crusade

      Peeler, William Adam
      When one begins to study the Crusades, it can be seen that many of the resources in circulation today are strongly biased towards Western Christianity. There are countless works written from the view of the Crusaders, and painfully few written from the perspective of the Islamic world. In addition to this, Western readers have access to numerous documents detailing the potential intentions of Pope Urban II and his initiation of the Crusades, the politics of the Western World during the eleventh-century, and the economic effects the Crusades had in the West, but the same cannot be said for the Islamic East. The way one views the world affects his or her perspectives on life, faith, and politics. This can be seen in the differences between the Islamic East and Christian West of the eleventh century CE. This paper will examine the differences between the Islamic East and Christian West focusing on how each side viewed the formation of the world, their uses and implementation of Holy War, and their views on when the First Crusade actually began.
    • Undergraduates' Retrospective Perceptions Of Academic Dishonesty As Gifted High School Students

      Jenrette, Don Edwin
      Research shows that gifted high school students engage in academically dishonest behavior. Likewise, research shows that individuals can use neutralization techniques offered by Sykes and Matza (1957) to rationalize academic dishonesty. This study was to investigate how undergraduates, who are former gifted high school students, can rationalize academically dishonest behavior by using neutralization techniques identified chronologically by Sykes and Mata (1957), Klockars (1974), Minor (1981), Benson (1985), Cromwell & Thurman (2003), and Coleman (2006) in a high school setting. Likewise, this investigation was conducted to uncover any novel neutralization techniques for cheating, issues that could lead to academic dishonesty and procedures, and instructions that could promote academic integrity in a high school setting. This mixed-methods study used a quantitative online survey and semi-structured interviews focusing on neutralization techniques to rationalize academic dishonesty. The participants were undergraduates reflecting on their experiences as gifted high school students. Ultimately, 127 undergraduates from a private university in Georgia provided their degree of agreement with 19 neutralization statements that correspond to neutralization techniques identified by Sykes and Matza’s (1957), Klockars (1974), and Minor (1981). Four respondents agreed to be interviewed. These qualitative interviews focused on all identified and any novel neutralization techniques used to rationalize academic dishonesty. This study revealed that gifted high school students could use all identified neutralization techniques to rationalize academic dishonesty. Three previously unidentified neutralization techniques to rationalize academic dishonesty were identified. Furthermore, issues that could lead to academic dishonesty and procedures and instructions could promote academic integrity were identified. The findings support the need for curriculum and instruction that promotes academic integrity among gifted high school students. Recommendations for further research include the extent of drift (Matza, 1964) experienced by gifted high school students, if non-gifted students use the newly identified neutralization techniques, when do students first use neutralization techniques to rationalize academic dishonesty, desensitization to academic dishonesty, moral development, investigating the relationship of one’s mindset and their tendencies to neutralize and/or engage in academically dishonest behavior, and a focus on more qualitative research to investigate multiple aspects of academic dishonesty at all levels.
    • Understanding The Faculty Experience Designing, Developing, And Delivering Massive Open Online Courses To Inform Academic Leaders Considering Mooc Initiatives

      Collins, Richard Bryan
      The work of academic faculty is what defines institutions of higher learning (Steward, 2013). Institutional leaders and decision-makers need valid, qualitative research information regarding faculty lived experiences in order to understand the opportunities and challenges of designing, developing, and delivering instruction on a massive scale. From 2008 to 2011 the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) went from an obscure experimental course to full-scale adoption by world-renowned institutions without consulting experts in the field of online learning, utilized older pedagogical frameworks, and still few have asked the academic faculty designing, developing, and delivering MOOCs if MOOCs are a viable learning experience or if MOOCs further institutional goals. The researcher chose to conduct a classical phenomenology by developing a 10 question semi-structured telephonic interview (Crotty, 1998; Husserl, 1931). Seven participants, four male, three female from the United States and Canada offered answers to the interview which resulted in rich data regarding their lived experiences. MOOCs can be extremely expensive and take an excessive amount of a professor’s time and energy to do well. Currently, MOOCs have not proved to be the educational panacea many had hoped however, MOOCs are likely here to stay for the foreseeable future as rapid changes become the new normal for higher education. Because of the emerging nature of this field of research numerous opportunities for future research are open. Institutional leaders need better understanding of costs and learning outcomes in MOOCs in order to evaluate the challenges and opportunities posed by MOOC initiatives in their respective institutions.
    • Understanding The Function Of Lmp1-ctar3 In Ebv-associated Lymphomas

      Ross, Tabithia
      Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous virus infecting most of the world’s population, utilizes the traditional B-cell maturation pathway of the adaptive immune system to establish a life-long infection in the host due to the ability of the virus to immortalize B-cells. Latent EBV infection is associated with distinct lymphoid malignancies, and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) has been identified as the primary oncoprotein associated with these lymphoid malignancies and the immortalization of naïve B-cells. The three C-terminal activating regions (CTARs) of LMP1 play a significant role in the transformation of a naïve B-cell by dysregulating the normal signaling pathways for cell maintenance and maturation thereby inducing the mature B-cell to continue proliferating without control, a classic hallmark of cancer. Our current research focuses on CTAR3, which resides between CTAR1 and CTAR2 and consists of an average of four and a half 11 amino acid repeats (11-aaR) and one-to-two proline-rich regions (PXXPXP). Previous research established an interaction between the CTAR3 and the JAK/STAT pathway via the proline-rich regions, but others have reported that CTAR3 was not necessary for the LMP1/JAK interaction or LMP1-mediated STAT activation. More recent work demonstrated a correlation between lower numbers of 11-aaR found in CTAR3 and increased pathogenesis; however, the exact role of the repetitive elements has not been elucidated. We hypothesized the repetitive elements found in LMP1 CTAR3 were necessary for the ability of CTAR3 to modulate the oncogenic nature of LMP1. Using GFP-tagged LMP1 expression constructs, we investigated the intracellular and extracellular trafficking of LMP1, cellular migration and protein solubility. While the number of 11-aaR found within LMP1 are variable in nature, we found that with the loss of the 11-aaR the normal biology of the oncoprotein was altered. We demonstrate that the repetitive elements of LMP1-CTAR3, specifically the 11-aaR, affect the biology of LMP1 including the stability and the intracellular and extracellular trafficking of LMP1, which can change the oncogenic potential of LMP1. We propose that targeting the functions of the CTAR3 repetitive elements may provide new advance therapeutic opportunities for patients with EBV-associated lymphomas.
    • Understanding The Nature Of Glycyrrhizic Acid In Breast Cancer Treatment

      Hall, Jessica S
      Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer in women with 1 in 8 women in the United States developing BC within their lifetimes. Of the numerous types of breast cancer, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common accounting for 80% of all breast cancers. The use of chemotherapeutic drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) improves the prognosis and survival of patients diagnosed with BC. Yet, many BC cells form a drug resistance leading to relapse and worsening of prognosis for the patient. We hypothesize that the alternative medicine, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) will lead to the induction of apoptosis in BC cells while sensitizing the cells in combination with first-line chemotherapeutic, DOX. The effects of treatment on BC cell growth was assessed and measured using TACS MTT Cell Proliferation Assay, Trypan Blue Dye Exclusion, DeadEndTM Fluorometric TUNEL System, Annexin-V/PI-double staining, Western Blot, cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the detection of mitochondrial membrane potential to determine mitochondrial function. In the current study, treatment with GA led to decreases in cell proliferation and viability in addition to the induction of apoptosis. Our results also show that exposure to GA leads to increased ROS generation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GA may be effective when used as co- treatment with DOX for BC treatment. Recommendations for further study involves illustrating the role and mechanism of hyaluronic acid (HA) on each cell line, investigating the usefulness of co-treatment with GA and DOX, examine the effects of ROS inhibitors on ROS generation and transition studies to focus on 3-D BC cell models.
    • Unlocking The Code : Matters Of Agency, Metalinguistic Skills, And Literacy Achievement For Speakers Of Non-mainstream American English / By Adrina O. Smith.

      Smith, Adrina O.
      This study examined the latent factors of dialect variation as they relate to reading achievement of second grade students. Sociocultural theory, identity theories, and critical theory used against a metaphorical backdrop of a bundle of locks were used to illustrate the complexity of language variation and its effect on reading achievement within minority populations. Current findings have established a negative correlation between reading achievement and use of Non-Mainstream American English (NMAE)—such that reading achievement decreases as use of NMAE increases. Although this relationship has been established, few researchers have utilized qualitative inquiry to explore the relationship between linguistic variance and reading. This study implemented an explanatory design of mixed methods. Quantitatively, the Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Screening Test (DELV-S) measured the linguistic variation and the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement-Third Edition (WJ-III) measured the reading comprehension of four second-grade students. Qualitatively, the students participated in follow-up interviews, sharing their lived experiences of metalinguistic awareness, dialect variation, and literacy acquisition. Findings affirmed the inverse relationship between use of NMAE and reading achievement and linguistic awareness. Findings also indicated that semantic awareness shapes linguistic awareness and conscientiousness of linguistic style, and the ability to accommodate the speech styles of others by means of convergence increases as variation away from Mainstream American English (MAE) decreases. Recommendations for further study include interviews with older students, monolingual students, and students who code switch regularly.