• Labels Are For Soup Cans: A Phenomenoglogical Study Of Elementary Principals' Experience With Ascribed School Status Under Georgia's Consequential Accountability System

      Brock, Dana Thomas
      The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of principals working in socioeconomically disadvantaged schools labeled as failing under the pressures and sanctions of test-based accountability. In this era of increasing accountability, strong leadership is crucial to improving the academic achievement in schools labeled as failing. Principals serving disadvantaged student populations in Title I schools are more likely to be penalized for failing to make adequate progress. This study was situated within the specific context of Title I schools labeled as failing. The need exists to understand the experience of negative reform mechanism and its meaning from the perspective of principals. Existing studies do not illuminate the perspective of school leaders. This study utilized an interpretative phenomenological analysis framework to understand how school leaders make sense of their ascribed school labels and consequential accountability mechanisms in the context of Title I schools. The findings from this study provided a deeper understanding of principals’ experiences and beliefs about their schools’ ascribed label. Findings were reported as four themes: responding to the school’s unique needs, feelings of stigmatization, the confluence of forces beyond the school’s control, and questioning fairness in comparisons. This study sought to draw attention to consequential accountability mechanisms as a matter of social justice. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers should focus on the implications of negative labels and structural inequalities in underperforming schools.
    • Biomechanical Evaluation Of Hybrid, Bicortical And Univrotical, Screw Configurations For Internal Bone Late Fixation Of Long Bone Fracture : An In-vitro Study Of Porcine Femur Bone Models / By Gabriel Jonas Gonzalez Quintero.

      Gonzalez Quintero, Gabriel Jonas
      ABSTRACT Midshaft fractures of the femur are commonly seen in clinical cases. A fracture is a break through the bone that compromises bone stability and its surroundings. After a fracture, the bone must go through bone healing to recover its full stability and function. Internal bone plate fixation of midshaft femur fractures is one of the leading ways that surgeons treat transverse fractures of the femur bone. The purpose of the implant plate is to provide structure and stability while the bone regenerates. Current clinical applications prefer the use of 6 bicortical non-locking screws in a 7 hole dynamic compression plate, considered as the traditional method, for the internal fixation of midshaft femur transverse fractures. This configuration provides a secure structure to allow for long-term rehabilitation, but it is also very invasive to the bone. The traditional method does not necessarily provide the best mechanical performance possible. This study proposes the use of hybrid configurations of screws for an alternative method of the bone plate fixation. Hypothetically, the combinations combine 4 unicortical and 2 bicortical screws into the plate/screw to bone interface to provide a balance between level of support and invasiveness offered by the implant. The goal of this study is to conduct an in-vitro, a physical, and a statistical analysis to better understand the implications of the hybrid configurations and compare their performance to the traditional method. The overall purpose of this study is to identify the best configuration of bone plate fixation for rehabilitation of a fractured femur bone. The study was conducted using porcine femur models. Porcine femurs are known to be anatomically and mechanically similar to the human femur [31]. Four groups were considered for this study. The control group was based on the traditional method of bone plate fixation, consisting of 6 bicortical screws. Each of the three testing groups had four unicortical and two bicortical screws, each with a different placement for the bicortical screws. The bicortical screws for Groups 2, 3, and 4 were located in the innermost, middle, and outermost holes of the plate, respectively. Seven bone samples were made for each group (n=7) following the same procedure of bone plate fixation for each group. A 10 mm transverse fracture was created at the midshaft of the femur to simulate the fractured bone. Each sample was then fixated at both ends of the femur through an epoxy. All bones were tested on the Materials Testing System located in the orthopedics lab of Mercer University, School of Engineering. Three analyses were conducted to test the performance of each configuration: an experimental in-vitro analysis of mechanical properties, a theoretical analysis of force interactions, and a statistical analysis for of significant difference of the data. The in-vitro investigation was done through a material analysis of the construct. Axial compression and axial failure tests were implemented to simulate the mechanical behavior of the construct under elastic and plastic deformation. In the axial failure test, pre- and post-cyclic assessments were made and the axial stiffness was calculated for each group. The average axial pre-stiffness was 909 ± 117 N/mm for Group 1 (the control group), 958 ± 104 N/mm for Group 2, 1083 ± 287 N/mm for Group 3, and 1096 ± 445 N/mm for Group 4. Overall, the configurations were ranked based on pre-stiffness performance in the following order: Group 4 > Group 3 > Group 2 > Group 1. The average axial post-stiffness was 1181 ± 156 N/mm for Group 1, 1046 ± 162 N/mm for Group 2, 1160 ± 207 N/mm for Group 3, and 1240 ± 521 N/mm for Group 4. Overall, the configurations were ranked based on post-stiffness performance in the following order: Group 4 > Group 1 > Group 3 > Group 2. The average axial stiffness was 407 ± 145 N/mm for Group 1 (the control group), 445 ± 91 N/mm for Group 2, 460 ± 143 N/mm for Group 3, and 680 ± 225 N/mm for Group 4. The average axial yield strength was 3910.13 ± 1776.638 N for Group 1 (the control group), 4268 ± 1837 N for Group 2, 5107 ± 2608 N for Group 3, and 7002 ± 2187 N for Group 4. The average ultimate failure force was 4949 ± 2678 N for Group 1 (the control group), 5743 ± 3026 N for Group 2, 6065 ± 3052 N for Group 3, and 8499 ± 1492 N for Group 4. Overall, the configurations were ranked based on the axial failure performance in this order: Group 4 > Group 3 > Group 2 > Group 1. The theoretical analysis studied the forces and moments acting on the implant to bone interface. This analysis was done through the use of free body diagrams. An analysis was performed for both the static (in equilibrium) and dynamic (not in equilibrium) behaviors of each configuration. From the static analysis it was determined that bicortical screws create larger forces on the bone than unicortical screws. The presence of more bicortical screws can result in higher wearing for the bone, as the bone cortex must create counteracting forces under axial loading. Thus, more bicortical screws results in higher bone wear at the implant interface. From the dynamic analysis it was concluded that if bicortical screws are placed farther from the fracture gap, they are able to provide a higher stiffness for the system due to a greater moment arm from the bicortical screw to the fracture gap. Based on these results, Group 4 represents a better theoretical model than Groups 1, 2, and 3. The statistical analysis was done through Minitab 17. The groups were tested for distribution normality and statistical significance in each of the variables. Most groups presented a normal distribution of the data. A total of 4 cases came out to be non-normally distributed, which only meant that these cases were not able undergo the statistical significance test. ANOVA analysis was done for those cases that presented a normally distributed data. Most variables presented no statistically significant difference between the groups. However, there were two cases, the axial stiffness under equal variances and the ultimate failure force under unequal variances, that had a p-value lower than 0.05. For these two variables there was enough evidence to show that the values were statistically significantly different and these were not attributed to chance. The material and physical analyses agreed with each other on the conclusions made. Overall, it was found that Group 4 offers a less invasive model than Group 1 and also greater stability and resistance to deformation than Groups 1, 2, and 3. In addition, the statistical analysis gave evidence that certain variables do represent the actual averages of the overall population. In conclusion, this study recommends the use of Group 4’s configuration as a more suitable implant for rehabilitation purposes of midshaft transverse fracture of femur bone. Keywords: DCP, Transverse Fracture, Femur Bone, Internal Fixation, Bone Plate, Unicortical and Bicortical Screw, Stiffness, Elastic and Plastic Deformation, and Configuration.
    • Soul Sisters: The Intersection Of Amanda Berry Smith And Selected Women In Ministry Of The Atlanta North Georgia Annual Conference Of The Ame Church

      BaaQar, Libya
      ABSTRACT LIBYA BAAQAR SOUL SISTERS: THE INTERSECTION OF AMANDA BERRY SMITH AND SELECTED WOMEN IN MINISTRY OF THE ATLANTA NORTH GEORGIA ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE AME CHURCH Under the direction of PETER RHEA JONES, Ph.D. This project juxtaposes the ministry and call narratives of randomly selected women in ministry ("WIM") of the Atlanta North Georgia Annual Conference ("ANGAC") and Amanda Berry Smith, a nineteenth century evangelist of the AME Church. Her ministry is important to the study of clergywomen in the AME Church, particularly the ANGAC. The call narratives provide an avenue to examine critical intersections between Smith and WIM of the ANGAC as it relates to affirmation of call, the Holy Spirit as liberator, and challenges with gender imbalances in clergy leadership in the AME Church. They show the challenges these women faced in locating their calls amidst the structures of a culturally controlled ecclesiology shaped by a historical patriarchal institution. The object of this project is three-fold: 1) to show a connection between the ministries and call narratives of the selected WIM of ANGAC and Amanda Berry Smith; 2) to show disparities in the ANGAC and Board of Examiners regarding gender and ministerial vocations; and 3) to show that Amanda Berry Smith’s ministry recognizes the importance of the Spirit in the call process and forces the church to reconsider how it looks at ministry. To significantly show the similarities between Amanda Berry Smith and the selected WIM of ANGAC, this project examines six elements found in their call narratives: 1) Divine confrontations; 2) Visions; 3) Commissions; 4) Objections; 5) Reassurances; and 6) Signs/Symbols. These elements help to identify compelling parallels between the two to introduce an AME heroine whose ministry encourages women in ministry to unapologetically pursue their divine call and ministerial vocation. As a result, this study will provide opportunities for the ANGAC Board of Examiners and conferences alike, to view ministry from a larger scale and recognize the role of the Spirit in the call process. In terms of research, this project uses qualitative research, collecting data from a survey and two focus groups. The participants consisted of twenty, randomly selected women in ministry from the ANGAC. They were Senior Pastors (Itinerant Elders) and not bi-vocational, Deacons (non-Itinerant Elders) currently in the Board of Examiners, bi-vocational clergywomen, and former AME clergywomen who are no longer part of the denomination. They were divided into the two groups, one with women in ministry currently in the ANGAC and one with those who left the AME Church. The women currently in the ANGAC received a survey of interview questions. Those who left the church participated in a focus group. Both instruments captured the participants’ experiences, beliefs, and reactions, resulting in beneficial data for this project.
    • Two Worlds, One War: An Examination Of The Islamic East And Christian West Prior To The First Crusade

      Peeler, William Adam
      When one begins to study the Crusades, it can be seen that many of the resources in circulation today are strongly biased towards Western Christianity. There are countless works written from the view of the Crusaders, and painfully few written from the perspective of the Islamic world. In addition to this, Western readers have access to numerous documents detailing the potential intentions of Pope Urban II and his initiation of the Crusades, the politics of the Western World during the eleventh-century, and the economic effects the Crusades had in the West, but the same cannot be said for the Islamic East. The way one views the world affects his or her perspectives on life, faith, and politics. This can be seen in the differences between the Islamic East and Christian West of the eleventh century CE. This paper will examine the differences between the Islamic East and Christian West focusing on how each side viewed the formation of the world, their uses and implementation of Holy War, and their views on when the First Crusade actually began.
    • DKK1's Potential Role As A Biomarker In Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

      Igbinigie, Eseosaserea Grace
      Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1)’s dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers. It is part of the Dkk family of proteins that includes Dkk2, Dkk3 and Dkk4. This family of secreted proteins shares similar conserved cysteine domains and inhibits the Wnt/b-catenin pathway by causing the degradation of �?�-catenin, thereby stopping cell proliferation. Dkk1 has also been previously shown to affect the CKAP/Akt pathway to increase Akt phosphorylation and promote cell proliferation. To determine the location and pathway that Dkk1 may regulate in pancreatic cancer cells, we performed immunofluorescence assays on Suit-2 cells. The results showed that Dkk1 is mainly located in the nucleus with a small percentage of the proteins in the cytoplasm. For Dkk1’s potential receptors, CKAP4 was found to have a similar staining to Dkk1 while Lrp6 was found to be evenly spread through the nucleus and cytoplasm. Further staining with the Wnt/�?�-catenin downstream protein, �?�-catenin, showed that it was colocalized with Dkk1 in the nucleus indicating that Dkk1’s presence did not inhibit its ability to translocate into the nucleus. Further studies into the cause of Dkk1’s inability to degrade and stop �?�-catenin’s translocation that causes increased cell proliferation is needed.
    • A Qualitative Examination Of Postsecondary Education Programs For Students With Intellectual Disabilities And The Perceptions Of Parents And Teachers Towards These Programs / By Emma S. Roundtree

      Roundtree, Emma S.
      Research has shown there is a gap in access to postsecondary education (PSE) programs for students with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Georgia. There is also a gap in the research literature concerning the perceptions of parents and teachers of students with ID towards these PSE programs. This study sought to examine these problems by using a qualitative case study research design. I found 30 institutions that offered PSE programs in Georgia. These institutions offered two-year and four-year degree and certificate programs. I explored ten of these programs in depth for this study. Six of these institutions offered programs for students with significant ID and allowed these students to participate in academic courses and other campus activities with their non-disabled peers. The other four programs served students with mild ID in an inclusive setting with appropriate accommodations. Next, I investigated the perceptions of parents and teachers of students with ID toward these PSE programs. The survey consisted of demographic information, a Likert-type scale, and an opportunity to participate in a follow up interview. Twenty-four parents and teachers of students with ID were recruited for this study; 22 participated. Six participants also completed follow-up interviews after the survey. These participants possessed limited knowledge of PSE programs but perceived the programs to be beneficial for students with ID. Participants believed their lack of awareness of these programs was due to a lack of collaboration and undeveloped relationships between PSE representatives and K-12 personnel. Participants also expressed concerns about the viability of services, parental/teacher involvement, and the overall outcomes of these programs. Future research concerning PSE programs for students with intellectual disabilities is recommended in order to investigate the ways in which these programs can aid a successful transition for these students from high school to independent adulthood.
    • Approaching The Tomb: How Scriptural Reflection And Hospice Education Influence The Church's Conversations About Death And Dying

      Duckworth, Darian
      DARIAN ELISE DUCKWORTH APPROACHING THE TOMB: HOW SCRIPTURAL REFLECTION AND HOSPICE EDUCATION INFLUENCE THE CHURCH’S CONVERSATIONS ABOUT DEATH AND DYING Under the Direction of CHANEQUA WALKER-BARNES, Ph.D. First United Methodist Church of West Point, Mississippi, is a multigenerational congregation experiencing growth in membership. Much of the church’s energy goes into activities for those able to come to the church building. The problem that has developed is that the homebound members and those who are nearing death are at risk of feeling isolated from the community of faith. The project developed as a way to identify what might cause church members to shy away from one another’s deathbeds. The goal of the project was to provide space in the local church for conversations on dying, death, and resurrection. The project measured the effects of Bible study and hospice education on the church’s ability to talk about death and dying. The intention was to help members of the local church articulate and reflect on which components of the end of life of their loved ones evoked discomfort and unease. The seven-week project consisted of a group interview in the first session, three sessions of Bible study on John 11:17-44, two sessions of hospice education, and a group interview in the final session. The project’s methodology involved qualitative research with data collection from group interviews and discussion. Data came from the two group interviews. The type of analysis used was phenomenological inquiry. The results of the project suggested that lack of medical information about the end of life and a lack of theological reflection about death in the local church contribute to people’s fears of talking about death and dying. There was concern expressed in the group about the suffering of the human body as death nears. Developing trust and relationships, especially through storytelling, helped enable conversations in the context of a small group. The study began with asking questions of a group but has become the beginning of a conversation that the local church can continue. Further study would include expanding the hospice education to others in the congregation, perhaps in conjunction with a sermon series on life after death. I would also hope that the project could become a small group study for use in other congregations.