• Making Sense Of Mathematics Through Number Talks: A Case Study Of Three Teachers In The Elementary Classroom

      Westbrook, Miranda
      Mathematics instruction in the United States has historically consisted of procedures and rote learning practices. Reform efforts in mathematics education support a conceptual approach that integrates reasoning and understanding of problems. Classroom number talks nurture the essence of learning in mathematics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of number talks in developing number sense and number relationships in third-grade students pursuant to teacher perception. This study also explored the instructional practices of teachers during number talks, using Parrish’s (2011, 2014) five fundamental tenets. An analysis of the types of questions that teachers pose during classroom number talks to elicit student responses was also conducted. An embedded, multiple-case study design was used to examine participant perceptions through a within-case analysis and a cross-case analysis. Three teacher participants in a large suburban school district in the southeastern United States served as the primary units of analysis, while the students in their classrooms served as the subunits of analysis. Over the course of a six-week period, each participant completed four, audio-recorded interviews and three video-recorded observations. The findings suggested that classroom number talks influence students’ number sense understanding by encouraging them to verbally reason about their thinking. Conclusions were (a) number talks promote accurate and precise communication about mathematics; (b) the learning environment is critical to the success of number talks as students who feel their responses are unappreciated by other students may be reluctant to participate; (c) the role of the classroom teacher is vital to the success of number talks; and (d) the dialogue during number talks was dominated by student-to-teacher discourse. Opportunities for future research include: (a) investigating the reliance on mental strategies learned through classroom number talks; (b) exploring the effects of number talks in a small-group setting; (c) examining the number talks practices of teachers at different grade levels; and (d) studying the impact of classroom number talks on students in various subgroups.
    • Manager in the Middle: A View of Strategic Planning in Higher Education from the Middle Management Perspective

      Flanders, Kimberly Sharron; Tift College of Education
      Strategic planning is a process that can assist institutions in responding to and preparing for the myriad changes in higher education; however, a lack of communication and other challenges can hinder institutions’ ability to effectively engage in the process. Because middle managers serve as liaisons between organizational leadership and front-line staff, this transcendental phenomenological investigation sought to understand the experiences of middle managers in the strategic planning process through the lens of path-goal theory. Criterion and snowball sampling were used to identify twelve middle managers to participate in semi-structured, topical interviews. The data were analyzed utilizing the modified Van Kaam method of analysis of phenomenological data to develop a description of the phenomenon. Findings from this investigation indicated that middle managers experienced strategic planning as a top-down process implemented with a team approach and the goal of benefiting students and the institution. The participants shared that they would like to be included in strategic planning discussions early in the process to help shape institutional priorities and actions based on their experiences with students, parents, and other stakeholders. Additionally, the participants agreed that their teams should be included in the strategic planning process to garner more buy-in and to provide a robust breadth of knowledge and experience in the discussions. The middle managers in this study also noted that the attitude of the leadership and support from an institutional research, or similar, office impacted their experience with the strategic planning process. Strategic planning leaders can utilize the information gleaned from this study to more effectively engage middle managers in the process, such as by providing trainings and early involvement. Future research in this area should study middle managers working at different types of institutions and should include more faculty participants.
    • Manipulation of the SUMO Activating Enzyme (SAE) by the Viral Oncoprotein, LMP1

      McKinnon, Ashton Taylor; School of Medicine
      As a ubiquitous virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects 95% of the global population. Although typically asymptomatic, its latency has been shown to cause a variety of different types of cancers, such as Burkitt’s lymphoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Latent Membrane Protein-1 (LMP1) has been shown to be the principle oncoprotein of EBV by facilitating dysregulation of many pathways through both direct interactions and downstream modulation. This project focuses on the direct interactions of LMP1 with the SUMOylation process. SUMOylation is characterized by the addition of a Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) to a target protein. This helps to facilitate cellular growth and proliferation, protein stabilization and turnover, amongst other cellular processes. We hypothesize that LMP1 directly manipulates the SUMO Activating Enzyme/SUMO E1 (SAE) through a variety of mechanisms. This project investigates the interactions of SAE and LMP1 utilizing immunoprecipitations. Our results show that SAE modulation occurs through interactions in a C-Terminal Activating Region (CTAR) -2 dependent manner. Another aspect is understanding the effect LMP1 has on SAE stabilization. This is done by treating LMP1-expressing cells and non-expressing cells with cycloheximide over a set time course. Western blot data shows a steady decrease in the amount of SAE present in non-LMP1-expressing cells, while SAE remains relatively stable in LMP1-expressing cells. Lastly, the lab is interested in how LMP1 affects protein trafficking. This utilizes immunofluorescence to tag proteins of interest in whole cells and visualize them using confocal microscopy. In addition, we use cellular compartmentalization to detect cytosolic and nuclear proteins in comparison to whole cell lysates. Immunofluorescence results show more SAE present in the cytosol of LMP1-expressing cells, while in negative counterparts, we see SAE primarily in the nucleus. This is confirmed in western blot data from compartmentalization experiments. Our findings suggest that LMP1 is capable of interacting with a variety of different proteins, including direct interactions with enzymes involved in the SUMOylation process, specifically SAE. Future work aims to elucidate how LMP1 can affect other enzymes in the SUMOylation process.
    • Mapping Internationalization at Community Colleges in the United States: Development and Validation of a Short Form of the American Council on Education Mapping Internationalization on U.S. Campuses Instrument

      Lewis, Ashwin; Tift College of Education
      The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate a short form of the American Council on Education Mapping Internationalization on U.S. Campuses instrument (the Mappings instrument) so that it can be used to measure internationalization at community colleges in the United States. A secondary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between community college internationalization and the institutional characteristics of control, minority-serving, and urbanicity so that the results can inform the internationalization strategy of the community college. These three institutional characteristics, as defined by IPEDS, were identified in the latest 2016 ACE Mappings survey. The community colleges’ responses to ACE 2016 Mappings instrument were dichotomized and quantified. The instrument development process followed that of Spector (1992). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze and validate the short form of the Mappings instrument. The final solution was verified using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA). The frequency distributions were categorized using the Sawilowsky et al. (1990) distribution types. The principal component analysis (PCA) process reduced the ACE Mappings instrument to 17 items while maintaining 72.04% of the information. The PCA process described internationalization as a five-dimensional construct. Cronbach reliability coefficient alpha (α) alpha was used to check the reliability of the short form. The Cronbach coefficient alpha (α) of the five dimensions ranged from .68 to .92. The corrected item-total correlations were all above .3. The distribution were all non-normal. Two types of Sawilovsky et al. (1990) distributions were identified. Using the frequency distributions, this study developed two types of norming strategies. The results of the study showed that there was a relationship between community college internationalization and the institutional characteristics of control, minority-serving, and urbanicity. Private not-for-profit community colleges scored the highest in three of the five dimensions with private for-profit community colleges scoring the highest in the remaining two dimensions. Minority-serving community colleges scored the highest in all of the dimensions except for the curriculum internationalization dimension. Community colleges situated in the city scored the highest in all of the dimensions except for the curriculum internationalization dimension.
    • Masculinity Perception and Motivational Influences on Male Students' Higher Education Academic Success

      Hallman, Jeff H.; Tift College of Education
      Male higher education students are expected to account for only 40% of the total college and university enrollment and only 40% of the total students who graduate with at least a baccalaureate degree by 2026. The disparity gap trend that began in 1981 has been widening since that year. The level of educational attainment has future consequences to the financial stability and employability that influences skilled, labor-based economies and marriage and childbearing structures. The problem addressed by this study was the declining rate of male undergraduate student educational success. This research sought to determine if there is a relationship between male students’ perceptions of their masculinity, academic motivation, and success at a specific higher education institution. Social role theory, personal construct theory, and self-determination theory served as the conceptual framework to understand if male students’ perceptions of their masculinity influence their higher education decisions and success. A mixed-methods, simultaneous explanatory methodology was utilized to attempt to discover possible links to male students’ academic success. During the Spring 2020 semester, 76 male full-time undergraduate students at a southeastern U.S. university with a relatively lower male student graduation rate responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Findings identified two primary factors that previous researchers suspected may be influencing the educational experience of male students. First, male students who see themselves as traditionally masculine or experience pressure to conform to traditional masculinity ideology are less likely to experience academic success. Second, amotivation is a key influencer of academic success among male undergraduate students. Discoveries such as those found in this study inform and influence higher education leaders, who should consider the contributing factors for declining success of all students and provide interventions and programs. Higher education personnel should assist male students with convolving the conflicting influences surrounding their masculinity and promote the lifelong benefits associated with academic success. Future studies should expand the institutions sampled in the study to determine if geography influences masculinity perceptions and attempt to focus on which aspects of traditional masculinity ideology are most predominate and contributory.
    • Mastering the Ropes of the Climb: A Case Study Exploration of Educator Perceptions of Their Preparedness to Teach in Behaviorally Inclusive Classroom Environments

      Fannin, Kaminsia M; Tift College of Education
      This study examined general education teacher perceptions of being prepared to meet the needs of students with emotional and behavior disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Preparation with the knowledge and skills needed for addressing the various needs of students with behavior disabilities is coupled with the metaphorical backdrop of scaling a mountain. This metaphor was used to illustrate the foundational necessity for training of skills and knowledge for tackling the undertaking, as well as the uphill venture it presents. Current research has examined the effect on teacher attitudes for working with EBD students and its influence on student outcomes. However, few researchers have utilized a qualitative case study to explore the relationship of their perceptions to their preservice and in-service (professional learning) preparation. This study implemented a qualitative design through a single exploratory case study methodology. Semi-structured questionnaires, journal reflections, and a focus group was utilized to gather participant experiences and reflections. Findings indicated 10 emerging themes associated with preparation for behaviorally inclusive classrooms. An overwhelming majority of the negative perceptions were associated with preservice and in-service preparation. Positive perceptions were in the areas of student teaching experiences and school-based collaboration/support teams. The positive perceptions found were not associated with preparation provided by either institution but gained by way of experiences while teaching. Recommendation for further study include expanding the participant pool by diversifying the geographic areas and school districts, gathering perceptions from special education teacher regarding the same institutions to compare to the perceptions of general education teachers, and gathering perceptions from students in behaviorally inclusive classrooms regarding their experiences with the teachers in the environment.
    • Matthew's Jesus: The Divine Exposed

      Carpenter, Cody James Everett
      There are various beliefs concerning different facets about Jesus. One of longest running debates about Jesus is whether or not he was human or divine. The purpose of this thesis is to examine one element that stems from the issue of Jesus’s nature. It can be argued that the Synoptic Gospels support Jesus’s divinity or humanness. This thesis examines the Gospel of Matthew in an attempt to show how the gospel portrays Jesus. This is not to say that Jesus was either human or divine, but that the gospel is multi-dimensional in its presentation Jesus. This examination is based on three different elements that can be seen in Matthew’s narrative and rhetoric. The first element is the literary device known as an inclusio, formed by Matt 1.23 and 28.20, connoting divine presence. This inclusio provides a framework for understanding the Gospel. The second element concerns the reactions that Jesus receives based on his actions and words. The passages of Matt 14.22–33 and 9.2–8 portrays the reactions of worship and accusation respectively. The final element comes from the same passages, but it relates to the allusions made linking Jesus with the God of Israel. Through my research I found that, though Matthew does present Jesus as a human who eats, sleeps, and bleeds, the gospel also presents Jesus’s identity as being one with the God of Israel. Two books I would recommend for further study are J.R. Daniel Kirk’s A Man Attested by God, Larry Hurtado’s Lord Jesus Christ.
    • Measurement of Intrinsic Cognitive Load and Mental Effort in Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students: A Focus on Instructional Design in the Synchronous Online Classroom

      Smith, Nicole Elena; Georgia Baptist College of Nursing
      One of the most significant challenges in nursing education is identifying effective approaches to teach the foundational knowledge of nursing. Students are often overwhelmed by instruction. It is important for educators to explore how instructional design strategies and student characteristics impact learning. Based on the cognitive load theory, all instructional designs should be analyzed from a cognitive load perspective. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional design strategies, influenced by the principles of the cognitive load theory, affect the cognitive load and mental effort of pre-licensure baccalaureate nursing (BSN) students in the United States. This study used a two-within repeated-measures design examining students' perceived mental effort and intrinsic cognitive load while controlling for prior knowledge (N = 39). There were two within-factors with two levels [complexity: simple and complex; and instructional strategy: cooperative learning (CPL) and cooperative learning with a problem-based component (CPL + PBL)]. All participants experienced a short lecture, then completed the Paas scale and Cognitive Load Rating Scale (CLRS) subscale for intrinsic load after engaging in a simple CPL or CPL + PBL activity followed by a complex CPL or CPL + PBL activity. In both cases, the simple activities required slightly more mental effort and intrinsic cognitive load when compared to the complex activities. The CPL + PBL instructional strategy required slightly less mental effort (Paas) and intrinsic load (CLRS) when compared to CPL. As content became more complex, the CPL + PBL strategy resulted in lower perceived mental effort and intrinsic cognitive load. However, differences were practically and statistically insignificant. Preliminary evidence suggests that when tasks are complex, the CPL + PBL strategy may be more impactful in its effect on mental effort and cognitive load. Further research is warranted to examine the potential of the novelty effect and total cognitive load while including student characteristics such as prior knowledge as a control variable. Building support for effective instructional design strategies that consider students’ cognitive load has the potential to improve pedagogical practices in nursing education leading to a better-prepared nurse graduate and improved patient outcomes.
    • Mental Health Counseling Students' Experience of Interprofessional Group Supervision

      Curtis-Davidson, Rico; College of Professional Advancement
      This phenomenological qualitative study records the experiences of counseling, psychology, and social work graduate students’ participation in interprofessional clinical group supervision at a local community-based mental health agency. Common themes that capture the experiences of participants from across academic disciplines receiving interprofessional group supervision are identified. IP clinical supervision shape the future of education curricula and promote an alliance between professional counselors, psychologists, and social workers to engender a treatment team that works collaboratively to improve overall health outcomes. Keywords: interprofessional, group supervision, interprofessional education, phenomenology
    • Methamphetamine Induced Immune Dysregulation

      Andrzejak, Sydney
      Methamphetamine (METH) use can induce and contribute to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we evaluated the roles of specific cytokines in the pathology of acute and chronic methamphetamine usage in vitro and in vivo. An immortalized rat astrocyte CTX-TNA2 cell line was used for a model of immune cells in central nervous system. Cells were treated with methamphetamine hydrochloride, dopamine hydrochloride as a reference point, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as a model of immunogenic stimulant. Our in vivo experimental design utilized female NIH-swiss mice that underwent a seven-day treatment period. The control mice were administrated 0.9% saline, and our treated mice were administrated 12 mg/kg of (+)- methamphetamine through intraperitoneal injections. Cells and tissue specific gene expression of key signal transducers, cytokines, and their receptors were evaluated with qPCR. Systemic cytokine levels were evaluated with flow-cytometry. The results suggest that METH acts locally to the brain tissue to cause a shift toward inflammation by increasing cytokine, receptor and signal transducer of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) pathways. While suppressing systemic cytokine production leading to an imbalance in Th-X paradigm.
    • Middle Grades Mathematics Engagement : How Action Research Informs What Counts / By Pateakia Ivory.

      Ivory, Pateakia
      The purpose of the study was to examine how action research informs instructional changes that need to take place in the middle grades mathematics classroom. There is a need for an increase in engagement in middle grades mathematics by educators being critically reflective of their instructional practices. The research question addressed in this study: How do I systematically reflect upon and change my mathematic instructional design through the process of action research? The qualitative methodology for this study was implemented through the process of action research. The researcher used daily journal reflections, student conversations, weekly lesson plan feedback, and achievement data to inform instructional changes grounded in constructivism within each round of data collection. Qualitative data analysis indicated that the action research process promotes reflection that shows critical instructional changes that may be hidden behind a teacher’s daily routine of instruction. Data also present the need for challenging work for high achieving students to promote engagement, confidence, independence, and persistence. Action research is critical to educators’ instructional practices because instructional design should morph to meet the needs of learners. Recommendations for future research include increasing low-ability student engagement, creating mindful engagement conversations with low-ability students, and implementing engagement strategies to promote grade-level content understanding for low-ability students. The researcher hoped to provide insight on the importance of incorporating action research into daily instructional practices to meet the needs of all learners.
    • Middle School Student Academic Success In Supplemental Courses: An Exploratory Study

      VanWagner, Kirsten Julia
      The purpose of this study was to explore potential relationships between and predictability of self-regulation and demographic variables and academic achievement for middle school taking their first supplemental online course.  Participant data from a historic data set included 95 middle school students in seventh and eighth grade enrolled in their first supplemental online course through their local school district virtual program within the state of Georgia. Using educational data mining and learning analytics, demographic, engagement, and performance data from the Fall 2018 semester were collected from the local district virtual program student information system (SIS) and learning management system (LMS) provider.  A multiple regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between demographic, engagement, and performance variables.  Results indicated statistically significant correlations between engagement, learning environment, and exceptionality (p = .037) as well as gender (p = .045); however, there was no statistically significant difference between student academic achievement and learning environment.   A second multiple regression analysis run with only 89 successful students indicated a statistically significant correlation between engagement, learning environment, and ethnicity (p = .026), and results indicated a statistically significant difference between effort regulation, learning environment, and academic achievement (p = .045).  Also discussed are the implications and limitations of the study leading to recommendations for future research. Findings indicated a need for additional exploration within ethnicity and exceptionality groups. Suggested areas for further study also included exploring additional variables such as scheduled work time, previous academic achievement, and subject area as well as comparison studies between traditional and online courses and qualitative research designs.