• Job Expectancy, Burnout, and Departure: Predictors of High School Principal Turnover

      Ross, Tara; Tift College of Education
      Among the many new educational challenges resulting from COVID-19 and existing learning deficits of students in underserved communities, districts and policymakers must address the school disruption caused by constant principal turnover. Extensive empirical studies on principal turnover continually show that transiting leaders impact staff and students at similar rates each year, further widening the gaps in performance for select subgroups of students and the careers of these leaders. The purpose of this study was to examine the causes of principal turnover in relation to those who stay and leave public education after one and three years with a focus on high school principals from a large metropolitan district in a southwestern region of the United States. The researcher aggregated district and school-level certified personnel data of 339 from approximately 2000 school principals through 2017-2020. The data were compiled into two categories: (a) staying on or leaving the job after one year and (b) staying on the job or leaving after three years. Using binomial logistic regression design, the researcher determined the extent that principals leave their schools based on individual and collective influences in the profession. The construct of job embeddedness was used to define the voluntary principal turnover behaviors for multiple years. The analysis showed a decrease in the principals who stayed at the same school from one to three years, with key variables such as the principal’s age, gender, and subordinate leaders predicting their intent to remain with the institution. The impact takes three to five years to improve the school or return student performance to a certain level. Furthering students’ educational path requires the district and school leaders to develop systematic and supportive processes to decrease principal turnover rate, particularly with minority student populations and inexperienced school leaders. Preventing and predicting involuntary principal turnover is necessary to increase and sustain the achievement and school climates conducive for favorable working and learning conditions. Recommendations included systematic efforts for national, state, and district retention initiatives, ongoing professional development on school improvement cycles, coaching for principals beyond their first two years, and greater autonomy at the school level.
    • John Leadly Dagg

      Straton, Hillyer Hawthorne
    • Journey To Compliance: Institutional Response To The 2011 Dear Colleague Letter To Address Campus Sexual Violence

      Nunn, Melissa Marie
      The U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights released the April 4, 2011 Dear Colleague Letter (DCL), a significant guidance document, to address student on-student sexual harassment and sexual violence. Sexual violence continues to be a problem facing colleges and universities, and institutions that do not respond appropriately to reports can result in severe outcomes for reporting parties, responding parties, and institutions. The purpose of this study was to examine institutional compliance and response to student-on student sexual violence using the regulations set forth by the April 4, 2011 Dear Colleague Letter. A sequential, mixed-methods design guided the researcher’s data collection and analysis process. The participants, Title IX coordinators at colleges and universities in the United States, were solicited utilizing a sequential QUAN→qual sampling technique. Data were collected using an online self assessment tool, semistructured, open-ended phone interviews, and a review of relevant documents. The researcher reviewed the findings of this study utilizing the lens of Strange and Banning’s (2001) Environmental Theory. Four deductive themes were derived from the 2011 Dear Colleague Letter: proactive efforts (noneducational), victim support services, educational measures and services, and incident investigation and judicial proceedings. An additional five themes emerged from the data used to describe Title IX coordinator experiences implementing Title IX on campus: limited resources, relationship with campus partners, challenges implementing Title IX training and regulations, and limited support for Title IX coordinator position. The researcher concluded the Title IX coordinators at the participating institutions appeared to have put forth a good faith effort to implement policies and procedures, support services, and training and education initiatives to ensure safe campus environments with reduced incidents of sexual violence. Recommendations for further study included examine the perceptions of students to assess their perceptions of institutional efforts related to sexual violence response on their campus; explore the experiences of other individuals responsible for responding to sexual violence on campus; and examine if the rescinsion of the 2011 DCL and the 2014 Questions and Answers on Title IX and Sexual Violence has impacted continued efforts at the participating institutions.
    • Labels Are For Soup Cans: A Phenomenoglogical Study Of Elementary Principals' Experience With Ascribed School Status Under Georgia's Consequential Accountability System

      Brock, Dana Thomas
      The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of principals working in socioeconomically disadvantaged schools labeled as failing under the pressures and sanctions of test-based accountability. In this era of increasing accountability, strong leadership is crucial to improving the academic achievement in schools labeled as failing. Principals serving disadvantaged student populations in Title I schools are more likely to be penalized for failing to make adequate progress. This study was situated within the specific context of Title I schools labeled as failing. The need exists to understand the experience of negative reform mechanism and its meaning from the perspective of principals. Existing studies do not illuminate the perspective of school leaders. This study utilized an interpretative phenomenological analysis framework to understand how school leaders make sense of their ascribed school labels and consequential accountability mechanisms in the context of Title I schools. The findings from this study provided a deeper understanding of principals’ experiences and beliefs about their schools’ ascribed label. Findings were reported as four themes: responding to the school’s unique needs, feelings of stigmatization, the confluence of forces beyond the school’s control, and questioning fairness in comparisons. This study sought to draw attention to consequential accountability mechanisms as a matter of social justice. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers should focus on the implications of negative labels and structural inequalities in underperforming schools.
    • Leading Large Without Losing Soul: Equipping Senior Pastors Of Large Congregations To Discover, Nurture, And Lead From The True Self

      King, Shaun Michael
      In the context of large church leadership, the success of a congregation is often associated with the public persona of its senior pastor. The result is a very real temptation on the part of the senior pastor to place a high premium on this public persona and leverage the better part of his or her energies in cultivating and preserving it at all costs. Gone unexamined or unattended, this unique dynamic makes it challenging for senior pastors of large congregations to maintain true integrity and lead from a position of authentic selfhood. In a context that often enables narcissistic tendencies of ego-preservation and promotion, it was the primary goal of this project to discover what deliberate practices of personal soul-care would empower and equip senior pastors of large congregations to continually lead from a position of authentic selfhood. To accomplish this task, traits were first identified that were characteristic of large church pastors who led from the true self. Then, five senior pastors of large congregations from across the U.S. were selected and interviewed in one-on-one, guided interviews, to determine what deliberate behaviors and practices aided them in their own personal soul care. The resulting data revealed seven themes that emerged as common among all five pastors. The themes were: A Way of Life, Sabbath-keeping, Personal Accountability and Community, Spiritual Practices, Physical Exercise, Calendar-management, and Staff Community. After introducing the background problem in detail, this thesis traces the theological, biblical, and historical foundations of this quest for authentic selfhood. It then details the particular challenges to this quest, as found within the context of large church leadership. The seven themes that emerged from the project are then described in detail. Finally, the thesis concludes with four practical pathways for future development and work. These pathways are: future writing projects, podcasts, retreats, and staff development.
    • Learning To Dialogue And Discern: Conversations That Matter In The Local Church

      Grammer, Libby Mae
      “How now shall we live?�? “What is right under these circumstances?�? “What has character and morality to do with decision-making and ethical living for Christians?�? These questions and many more feel harder and harder to address in a culture so politicized and polarized that the very consideration of ethical conversation evokes considerable anxiety in individuals and communities. Learning how to navigate the dual enterprises of exploring politicized moral issues in a church community setting and fundamentally changing how a group dialogues requires deep examination of Christian morality, the ethical methodologies to assess it and make moral recommendations in group settings, and the group dynamics and dialogue / discernment models. With the deep social and political divide in the United States today, politically diverse churches like River Road Church, Baptist in Richmond, Virginia have often become silent on issues of moral importance that have become politicized, or have even split along secular political party lines, instead of seeking to find a Christian response to contemporary political and social issues through productive dialogue. This project sought to create a covenantal ethical discerning dialogue that produces a way of having a productive dialogue within church leadership that is theologically rich, intellectually serious, genuinely illuminating about moral issues, and that leaves the community intact. Ultimately, the project results seemed to indicate that such a model for discerning dialogue was necessary and helpful for church leaders, while also providing some insight to needed changes to the dialogue process.
    • Let The Dead Bury The Dead: A Phenomenology Using Student Voice To Understand The Current Perception Of Social Studies Among High School Seniors

      Mangano, John
      Since the passage of No Child Left Behind, current high school seniors left elementary school experiencing less instructional time for social studies compared to other subjects. The dominance of standardized tests led students to conclude that only tested subjects are important, which excluded social studies. The purpose of this research was to listen to student voice to hear the current perception of social studies and determine what factors form those perceptions. To understand the current perception of social studies, a phenomenology was conducted using social learning theory. A student perception survey of social studies was created and administered to 111 high school seniors in a large southeastern urban high school. From those 111 students, three were selected to participate in a series of three interviews. During those interviews, it was found that two students had a positive perception of social studies with the main factors being parental influence and the use of engaging teaching methods and instructional strategies. Students cited lack of relevance as a leading factor to a negative perception of social studies. They found social studies as an important content area but held a negative perception of the individual social studies classes. Parental perception was a strong factor in forming a positive perception of social studies. Student 3 found social studies a dead subject due to the teacher bias and lack of relevance. He did not understand the purpose of taking social studies. All three students continually cited curriculum overlap between United States history and political system as a factor in a negative perception of social studies. After listening to student voice, the researcher determined that the seniors in the study viewed the content area of social studies with a positive perception but saw lack of relevance within individual social studies classes. Teachers must strive to make class engaging and use effective instructional strategies to ensure a positive perception of social studies. Further research should include curriculum overlap and teacher preparation programs to ensure teacher candidates are taught effective instructional strategies.
    • Leveraging "Small Data" Through Predictive Analytics To Support Clinical Decision-making

      McKinley, DeAngelo
      ABSTRACT DeAngelo Jamond McKinley, BS LEVERAGING “SMALL DATA�? THROUGH PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS TO SUPPORT CLINICAL DECISION-MAKING Under the direction of Ayman Akil, Ph.D. The United States pays twice as much for healthcare on average than any other nation on Earth, yet the quality of care is not guaranteed. Differences in clinical decision-making (CDM) have been identified as a leading contributor to the variability in the quality of healthcare throughout the United States. The healthcare industry has sought to employ predictive analytics to improve the quality of care. The major focus of these efforts has been centered on supporting resource management and streamlining operational tasks, however, there has been little effort to address the needs of clinicians in direct patient care. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind existing interventions and patient specific factors that lead to poor clinical outcomes are critical to improving quality in healthcare. Our central project aim is to demonstrate how and where small data predictive analytics can be used to support CDM. In specific aim 1 we used univariate regression to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist-led intervention in African American patients with heart failure (HF). We found that the pharmacist-led intervention had a greater impact on HF-related readmission than non-HF related readmission. In specific aim 2 we used a linear model tree to identify patient specific factors predictive of 30-day readmission. We found numerous factors predictive of HF-related and non-HF related readmission with no clear distinction between the predictors of these two clinical outcomes. In specific aim 3 we assessed the relationships between medication adherence, lifestyle modifications, and long-term blood pressure control through univariate regression, and the Andersen-Gill model, a timeseries model for predicting the probability of recurrent uncontrolled hypertensive events. Results suggested that a combination of lifestyle modifications may have a comparable effect on long-term blood pressure control to medication adherence along. In this work we supported CDM by evaluating the effect of interventions on a population of intertest, identifying factors contributing to the risk of an untoward medical event, and codifying significant contributors to a clinical phenomenon. In future work we aim to deploy our HF risk prediction model in a clinical setting and assess the effectiveness of model directed interventions on 30-day HF-related readmission.
    • Living In Exile: A Postcolonial Reading Of The Jacob Cycle

      Lauersdorf, Zachry Carl
      ABSTRACT ZACHRY CARL LAUERSDORF LIVING IN EXILE: A POSTCOLONIAL READING OF THE JACOB CYCLE Under the direction of DAVID G. GARBER, Ph.D. The Jacob Cycle of Genesis is one of the most fascinating series of stories from the biblical text. These stories are marked by Jacob’s deceitful nature, life in exile, and eventual return from exile. These stories are also marked by God’s continual protection and blessing of Jacob throughout the stories. These stories have as much to say about God as they do about Jacob. This thesis attempts to connect the stories of Jacob with the Judean experience of the Babylonian Exile, to see how that experience may have shaped these stories. Given that this thesis examines the effects of empire on the biblical text, this study utilizes a postcolonial literary analysis of the Jacob texts and exilic prophetic texts to determine how the Jacob texts bear the scars of the exilic experience. To determine the postcolonial nature of the Jacob texts, this thesis addresses the following questions: (1) How does Jacob’s flight from home and subsequent divine encounter at Bethel reflect a postcolonial worldview?; (2) How is Jacob’s labor in Laban’s household significant with regards to postcolonial thought?; and (3) How do Jacob’s character and personality reflect a postcolonial worldview? The conclusion of this study is that the Jacob texts exhibit a large exilic influence, and the character of Jacob is a hero for the colonized and the exiles. Further studies could examine other texts in the book of Genesis, especially the stories of younger brothers, through a postcolonial lens to see how the theme of exile is present in them.
    • Locus Of Injury: The Relationship Between Moral Injury And Locus Of Control

      Wheeler, John
      The purpose behind this study was to determine if a relationship between locus of control (LOC) and moral injury (MI) exists, and to contribute to the pool of existing research for MI. Findings established that there is a relationship that exhibits moderate strength. Additional findings also note a moderate to strong relationship between impaired function from MI and MI symptom severity. Correlational analysis did not identify a significant relationship between LOC and MI impaired functionality, implying unique characteristics between these two distinctions of MI. Further implications suggest that as LOC travels from external to internal, MI symptomology will decrease.