• Fabrication And Evaluation Of Microneedles And Other Enhancement Technologies For Transdermal Delivery Of Anticancer Drugs / By Hiep Xuan Nguyen.

      Nguyen, Hiep Xuan
      Skin (transdermal/topical) delivery offers several advantages over other conventional routes of administration. It helps eliminate first pass metabolism, decrease side effects, enhance patient compliance and decrease frequent dosing. Transdermal delivery has been limited to potent, moderately lipophilic and small molecules. However, the benefits of this route of administration appeal to researchers to expand this limited scope. Multiple physical enhancement techniques have been investigated to increase transdermal drug delivery such as microneedles, laser, electroporation, iontophoresis, and sonophoresis. These methods compromise the barrier function of skin by affecting the skin -stratum corneum and/or epidermis to allow the drug to pass through the treated areas. These approaches facilitate skin delivery of various compounds that includes small molecules, macromolecules, and nano/microparticles. The efficiency of physical enhancement techniques is most useful to deliver hydrophilic large molecules that cannot enter the skin by passive diffusion. In our studies, we used microneedles, fractional ablative laser and ultrasound to treat dermatomed porcine ear and/or cadaver human skin to enhance in vitro transdermal delivery of anticancer drugs, methotrexate, vismodegib, and doxorubicin.
    • Facilitated Topical and Transdermal Delivery of Small Molecules

      Yeh, Jihee; College of Pharmacy
      The skin is the largest organ of the body that is easily accessible and can be utilized as a route of administration to deliver drugs locally and systemically to achieve targeted therapeutic effects. It provides several advantages over conventional routes of administration (e.g. oral and parenteral) such as bypassing first-pass metabolism, reduction of adverse effects and enhanced patient compliance. However, drug delivery through skin can be challenging due to protective barrier of the skin, especially stratum corneum. Stratum corneum serves as a rate-limiting layer and only allows the permeation of drug molecules with certain physicochemical properties. Chemical enhancers can be used to reversibly alter the structure of stratum corneum to be more permeable without causing long-term compromise of the skin. Also, physical enhancement technique such as iontophoresis utilize an additional energy as a driving force to actively disrupt the barrier nature of stratum corneum to enhance the drug delivery.In the present study, different enhancement strategies such as addition of permeation enhancers to the drug formulation and/or electrically assisted technique such as anodal and cathodal iontophoresis were investigated to enhance the delivery of therapeutic (N-acetylcysteine and minoxidil) and dermatological (adapalene) drugs into and across the skin. Also, iontophoresis was explored for enhancement of topical and transfollicular drug delivery. In summary, chemical enhancers and physical enhancement technique were shown to significantly enhance the skin permeation of different drugs into and across the skin, as compared to their respective passive permeation controls. Furthermore, studies of iontophoresis with different durations of current application revealed that lower duration was adequate to achieve significant amount of minoxidil in hair follicles with reduced amount of drug penetration across the skin, thereby potentially minimizing systemic exposure.
    • Factors Associated with Transition to Student-Centered Pedagogy in Nursing Educators: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Study

      Slocumb, Rhonda Harrison; Georgia Baptist College of Nursing
      Student-centered pedagogy (SCP) has positively affected student performance, but transition to SCP in nursing education has not been fully progressed. To facilitate transition to SCP, factors affecting transition to SCP should be examined from nursing educators’ perspectives because of their important roles in the transition. Multidimensional factors that may be associated with transition to SCP have not been frequently examined from educators’ perspectives. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with transition to SCP in the total sample and in the subgroups based on age, program, and teaching experience. In this cross-sectional, correlational study, a convenience sample of 108 nursing educators were enrolled using social media, online forum, and emails with study information. Data on demographic characteristics, earned degree, knowledge of SCP, belief in effectiveness of SCP, support, situation, strategy, and transition to SCP were collected through an online survey. Multiple regression analyses with the Enter method were used to address the study purpose. The majority of the sample were > 50 years old (52.8%) and female (96.3%). The level of transition to SCP was low (2.76 out of 4), and the levels of knowledge of SCP and belief in effectiveness of SCP were moderate (30.27 and 31.42 out of 40, respectively). Knowledge of SCP was consistently, significantly associated with transition to SCP in the total sample (p < .001) and in all the subgroups: age ≤ 50 years old (p = .001), age > 50 years old (p = .007), teaching associate program (p < .001), teaching baccalaureate and graduate programs (p = .012), teaching experience ≤ 10 years (p = 001), and teaching experience > 10 years (p = .030). In addition, belief in effectiveness of SCP (p = .017) and degree earned (p = .046) were significantly associated with transition to SCP only in the age > 50 years group. Thus, interventions need to be developed and delivered to nursing educators to increase their knowledge of SCP and belief in effectiveness of SCP, and, in turn, to facilitate transition to SCP, especially for nursing educators > 50 years old with higher earned degree.
    • Factors Related To Ninth-grade African American Female Student Motivation Toward Math Achievement: A Case Study

      Comegys, Roxanne
      ROXANNE T. A. COMEGYS FACTORS RELATED TO NINTH-GRADE AFRICAN AMERICAN FEMALE STUDENT MOTIVATION TOWARD MATH ACHIEVEMENT: A CASE STUDY Under the direction of DR. MARGIE WIGGINS JONES, Ed. D This qualitative study investigated factors related to African American female motivation toward math achievement. The investigation included developing an understanding of their achievement goal orientations. This case study approach utilized semistructured interviews adapted from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning survey (Midgely, 2002). The data were analyzed using thematic coding and triangulation. Descriptive data included math scores, which were compared with data from individual interviews and a focus group. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) relationships, (2) classroom goal structures, (3) academic motivation, (4) interest, and (5) disparate themes. These themes provide language to describe the findings from this study. The four main findings were: (1) the relationships of African American females with adults and peers are important and part of their cultural identities, serving as mediators between motivational processes and their learning; (2) classroom environments that support the motivation of African American females toward math achievement should include learning targets reflective of mastery goal structures and high expectations; (3) the interest of African American females is a conductor between academic motivation and motivation toward math achievement; and (4) achievement goal theory is a suitable framework for researching different aspects of African American female motivation and learning. Further research should include the teacher perspective on student motivation toward math achievement. Research should also consider focusing on classroom goal structures that affect African American motivation. Subsequent research should include purposeful sampling to ensure there are participants who reflect a spectrum of math competency levels.
    • First Generation College Freshman Attrition And Persistence For Native American Students

      Perez, Nicolas
      This qualitative study examined factors contributing to Native Americans’ low college graduation rates. As of 2016, just 41% of first-time, full-time Native American students managed to earn a Bachelor’s degree within six years. In contrast, the national average for all students was 59%. A constructivist, case study approach was used along with a theoretical framework consisting of Tinto’s Model, viewed through the lens of Tribal Critical Race Theory. Sixteen first-generation, Native American, college-bound high school seniors were interviewed before and after their first semester in college in order to better understand the challenges they faced, as well as the strategies they used to persist. Several salient themes emerged from analysis – family environment, support, college transition and achieving success. The effect of the family environment upon the study participants was the most significant, and was woven into and throughout the other themes. Family is critical to Native Americans. Several universities have established Native American centers on their campuses as homes away from home for Native students. Participants found these to fail at their mission. While first-generation families tend to discourage college attendance, the study participants’ families encouraged it and were highly supportive. Participants evidenced under-preparation for transitioning to college. Tertiary education came as a shock. Achieving success involved a variety of factors, including having the right stratagems, skills, and more importantly, the self-efficacy necessary to advocate and fight for their goals. The attrition and retention of Native Americans merits further research. The roles that trauma and self-efficacy play, jointly as well as separately, in persistence, needs to be explored. The effect that education has on an Indian community should also be looked at. Finally, persistence and attrition rates should be examined, to include students of all ages and for periods longer than six years. American Indian college graduation rates have historically ranked below that of all other minorities. The benefits of economic prosperity through education have a direct effect on individuals as well as their communities. While not a complete solution to the social problems facing Indian reservations, the more educated a population becomes, the higher the level of economic growth.
    • Forgetting To Remember: The Crisis Of Spiritual Alzheimer's In The People Of God

      Childs, Christina J
      Remembrance is a central theme in the covenant between God and God’s people in the Hebrew Bible. Yet, consistently in the text and in the world, God’s people too easily forget God, forgetting what God has done for God’s people in the past, who God is to the people of faith now and thus who they are and how they are to interact as the people of God. This faith forgetfulness has led the people of God to put others and other things in God’s stead, leading the people away from God and away from their identity as the people of God. To support this premise, parts of the pattern of not remembering and its negative effects in the biblical text (specifically in Exodus, Deuteronomy, and Judges) will be briefly highlighted, as well as how notable biblical scholars have supported this reading of the text. Historical and philological criticism will help to explore the background of what the theme and theology of remembrance meant for the Israelites in their context and language. Rhetorical criticism will be used to help the listener understand what these stories of remembrance and the lack thereof would have elicited in the hearer then and today. When the people of God do not remember who God is and thus who they are in relation to that God, the lack of remembrance becomes their faith’s death knell. Thus, the idea of faith memory will be introduced for application and simultaneous correction to the habits of the modern Church. The Christian faith must change the way it remembers in the Church or it, as a faith tradition, will not survive. Further, the Church must understand that the lack of remembrance, remembrance of faith memory and of God, is a fundamental failure of the people of God and an ethical issue that must be corrected. A modern parable describing this chronic faith forgetfulness as a spiritual type of Alzheimer’s disease will be used to help convey the urgency and import of the problem at hand.