Browsing Theses and Dissertations by Subject "Cardiovascular disease risks"
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Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risks in Black Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) or Coronary Bypass Graft (CABG) Procedures: A Retrospective Correlational StudyCardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death among adults in the United States (US) with a high prevalence among Black women. Black women have higher incidences of known CVD risks and higher CVD-related mortality than women of other races. To reduce CVD risks, factors associated with CVD risks should be investigated. Although some sociodemographic, biophysiological or physical, and psychological factors have been found to be associated with CVD risks, the associations of these factors with each CVD risk have been rarely examined in Black women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of CVD risks (smoking, obesity, HTN, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and alcohol use) and the associations of sociodemographic (i.e., age and health insurance payor), biophysiological/physical (i.e., metabolic/infectious/autoimmune [MIAs] conditions [kidney disease, thyroid disease, hepatitis, and systemic lupus erythematous] and antihypertensive/antidiabetic/lipid-lowering medication use), and psychological (i.e., depression) factors with each of the CVD risks in Black women who had percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft procedures. In this retrospective, correlational study, variable data were collected from a convenience sample of 137 Black women (mean age: 64 years) based on electronic health records (EHRs) of a large healthcare system. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression using the Enter method were used to analyze the data and address the purpose of the study. Participants had a mean of 3.6 total CVD risks. There was high prevalence of hypertension (95.6%), hyperlipidemia (95.6%), and obesity (59.1%). Those with MIAs (p = .010) or on lipid-lowering medications (p = .020) were less likely to smoke. Participants on antidiabetic medication were more likely to be obese (p = .013). Older age was associated with hypertension (p = .024). Antidiabetic medication use was associated with diabetes (p <.001) and lipid-lowering medication was associated with hyperlipidemia (p = .029). No factors were associated with alcohol use. Further studies are needed to examine the relationships of those factors used in this study in larger sample studies with prospective, longitudinal study designs. Then, development and delivery of interventions targeting those factors affecting CVD risks are needed for Black women with multiple CVD risks.