• Recovery and Discovery: Developing a trauma-sensitive theology model which informs wholistic pastoral care for African American Women

      Stubbs, Tiffany (2021)
      Abstract: This research study seeks to examine the experience and responses of trauma within the realms of intersectionality and trauma informed care for African American women. The criticality of examining the duality of trauma and theology is filtered through a literature review and theological discourse. There is evidence of a correlation between the StrongBlackWoman schema and intergenerational epigenetic trauma. The trauma of living through the intersectional lanes of what it means to be an African American woman has consequently imbued African American Women with an obligation to bear the burden of strength and resiliency. This obligation has had detrimental effects on African American women’s physical, emotional and spiritual well-being. In order to provide space for transformative healing, I have suggested a construct of pastoral care model that encompasses a trauma-sensitive theological approach as a pathway to transformative healing. The goal of the pastoral care model is to provide strategies of recovery from trauma and discover ways to cope.
    • Reliability of Low-Cost Thermometers for Monitoring Foot Temperature

      Doolittle, Kristen M.; Wendland, Deborah M. (2021)
      Diabetes prevalence is high and often burdens the economically disadvantaged. With the risk for foot complications in those with diabetes, foot temperature monitoring can help lessen ulcer risk. Higher cost thermometers have been validated. Validation of lower cost thermometers could improve access for the underserved. Purpose: To assess device repeatability, reliability, and ease of use. Methods: 3 inexpensive infrared thermometers were compared against a reference thermometer for repeatability. Rater reliability was assessed by 2 raters using 3 trials at 3 sites across 25 subjects. Feasibility was assessed by subjects ranking the thermometers after testing them. Data Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used for device repeatability. Intra-class correlation coefficient was used to assess rater reliability. Results: Device repeatability: single day coefficients of variation (CV) ranged from 0.20%-0.91%; all days CVs ranged from 3.32%-4.69%. Rater reliability: 25 subjects (49.6�15.8 years). Intra-rater ICC was >0.99 for researchers and thermometers. Inter-rater ICC was 0.965 - 0.975. Thermometers were ranked based on comfort, handling, size, and the light presence. Discussion: Reliability and repeatability of thermometers were good and measurements correlated strongly with the reference. The subjects had little difficulty using the devices. Conclusions: Inexpensive, commercially available infrared thermometers can be a reliable/valid way to assess local skin temperature.
    • Return to Golf Post Subscapularis Repair: Consideration of Regional Interdependence

      Williams, Katelyn; Ebert, Jeffrey G. (2021)
      Return to golf post subscapularis repair Background Isolated subscapularis tears are uncommon in relation to the frequency of rotator cuff (RTC) pathology. However, in specific populations such as golfers, the subscapularis is the second most torn RTC muscle. Purpose The purpose of this case is to encourage clinicians to consider regional interdependence between a subscapularis tear/repair and a history of low back pain in a recreational golfer. Standard rehabilitation specific to the shoulder post subscapularis repair achieved full functional use of the upper extremity, but limitations persisted specific to golf. This case report highlights the importance of assessing golf mechanics with regional interdependence in mind in order to assist a patient in returning to functional golf performance. Case description A 42-year-old male, recreational golfer since age 14, presented to the clinic post subscapularis RTC repair with a goal of returning to golf. Golf swing analyses were performed pre and post treatment and test retest treatment methods assessed patient�s lingering pain complaints during golf. Outcomes The FOTO and numeric pain rating scale were used to measure improvement along with the patient�s subjective report and golf swing analysis with video footage. The patient�s FOTO score improved by 50 points over 6 months of rehabilitation indicating return to functional use of the UE. Patient�s pain decreased to 0/10 during golf game.
    • School-Based Health Centers and Mental Health Access among Minority and Low-Socioeconomic Adolescents

      Barfield, Kailey; Martinelli, LeAnne (2021)
      School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs) are comprehensive health clinics that provide a myriad of services to the students that they serve. SBHCs are meant to overcome barriers students face when it comes to accessing healthcare such as transportation, limited clinic hours, and parent work schedules. However, many of the most vulnerable populations - like those living in poverty and those that identify as racial/ethnic minorities - may still encounter barriers when it comes to accessing mental healthcare. A review of previous studies was done, and suggestions were provided for improved access to mental health services through SBHCs to even the most vulnerable populations.
    • Sex Differences in an Fmr1 Knock-out Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

      Jessica Armstrong; Yiming Chen; Tanishka Saraf; Clinton Canal
      Possessing a single X-chromosome, fragile X syndrome (FXS) occurs more frequently in males than females, and FXS males typically have more severe clinical symptoms than FXS females. Genetic mosaicism (X-inactivation) in females with FXS is the presumed, exclusive reason for the lower symptom severity; we explored the hypothesis that other factors - sex hormones or sexually dimorphic brain systems - could be involved.
    • Social Determinants of Health That Affected Covid-19 Outcomes

      Carter, Angelique; Couch, Valerie; Mullinax, Jonathan; Willis, Steffenie; Walthall, Sabrina (2021)
      The covid-19 pandemic has exposed the longstanding structural drivers of health inequities, such as race, economic disparities, and housing insecurities. These important determinants of health have interlinked with other factors during covid-19 to exacerbate existing social vulnerabilities in society. People from racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by lack of access to quality health care which leads to inequities in treatment. People from lower incomes, experience challenges that make managing expenses, paying medical bills, accessing nutritious food, and reliable childcare difficult. Some groups are disproportionately affected by difficulties finding affordable and quality housing. This may limit their housing options to neighborhoods and residences with crowded conditions. These conditions are often time family members of many generations living in one household which can lead to exposure of older adults to illnesses and diseases. This research discusses how these determinants may increase risk of COVID-19 exposure, leading to hospitalization, long-term health issues, social consequences, and death.
    • Spaciotemporal analysis of COVID-19 to study impact of mobility on infection rate

      Hamza, Syed Ali; Bukhari, Syeda Sydra; Chandio, Sara Khan; Khan, Shakeel (2021)
      Background: COVID-19’s asymptomatic nature in some people makes it undetectable in initial days of contact and results in spread of the infection. Some countries have contained its spread, whereas some are still experiencing increasing cases. This study includes spaciotemporal analysis of COVID-19 and mobility data to provide insights in how the infection spreads while comparing the public mobility between the best and worst performing countries. Study Design/Method: The data about cases, recoveries, and deaths from Jan ’20 to Feb ’21 from John Hopkins-CSE is integrated with mobility data from Google. It is then analyzed at global level with further drilldowns into continent, countries, and states in US. Study includes comparative analysis between US and New Zealand to show which mobility parameters influenced the spread. Locations such as transit stations, retail, grocery, workspaces, residential areas, and parks were studied to find their impact. Findings: The analysis indicates that there was a short-term drop in mobility around workplaces, retail and grocery stores, and transit stores in United States along with a spike in the mobility across parks during the initial period. On the other hand, mobility has been under control in New Zealand. The study highlights that the areas with higher public activity shows higher infection rate, thus controlling the public movement around retail and grocery places has positive influence than complete shutdown of the workplaces.
    • Stress in Cancer Patients

      McLean-Clark, Stephanie (2021)
      o A major insurance company that employees over 70,000 persons and provides healthcare coverage to approximately 180 million people in more than 30 countries across the world. Every year they receive thousands of prior authorization requests related to tests for cancer patients. Currently, providers must submit these requests through a designated electronic system and these requests may take up to seven business days for processing. During this waiting period, Cancer patients experience stress upon learning that they may have cancer. Additional stress can be added when they are forced to wait for approval from the insurance company to have additional testing performed. The goal of this proposal is to decrease the wait time for cancer patients by providing an approval or denial by reconfiguring the system to move these requests to the top of the processing list.
    • Subcutaneous CGRP Antagonist Injections: A Novel Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Migraines

      Burrows, Caroline; Sadowski, Catherine (2021)
      Nearly 4 million Americans suffer from chronic migraines. These patients have severe headaches that occur for 15 or more days a month, leading to a diminished quality of life. Current recommended therapy is not conducive to all patients, as one study shows 68% of these patients experience at least one medication treatment failure. Within the last few years, the FDA has approved new medications, known as CGRP antagonists, that are proving to be efficacious in the treatment of chronic migraine.
    • Technology Implementation: How it Reduces the Transmission of HIV/AIDs in Low-income/Rural Communities

      Walker, Brittany (2021)
      Sexuality, race, age, education, and socioeconomic status are all actors in HIV transmission. In a sense, socioeconomic status encompasses all factors which directly affect the quality of life and privileges offered to people. The lack of resources in low-income communities is directly linked to risk behavior; people who lack resources are more likely to participate in drug use and high-risk sexual behaviors. Also, individuals who experience homelessness are more likely to engage in sexual behaviors in exchange for money, housing, and food are also at a higher risk of contracting/transmitting HIV; this is also the case for people who lack nutritional resources. Though it cannot be said that poverty causes HIV, poverty is highly correlated with HIV infection rates. Implementing technology utilization in clinics within impoverished communities can positively impact subjects at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting the disease. By combining technology and education, access to health care and other resources are accessible to at-risk subjects.
    • Teledermatology: Preventing and Diagnosing Skin Cancer in the Rural United States

      Benedit, Veronica; Aycock, Mallory (2021)
      In the United States, skin cancer is a prevalent and sometimes preventable form of cancer that causes a significant disease burden on both rural and urban communities. Studies have shown, however, that rural communities bear a unique burden in that rural residents are less likely to engage in primary prevention behaviors against skin cancer. Additionally, skin cancer incidence and mortality are higher among rural residents. Teledermatology can be used to address disparities in both skin cancer diagnosis and health education to improve dermatology outcomes in rural communities. Teledermatology is the use of technological advancements in both image acquisition and communication to improve access to dermatology care. This poster reviews teledermatology formats, barriers, and benefits to encourage integration of teledermatology modalities into regular physician assistant practice. Both family practice as well as dermatology physician assistants can utilize teledermatology to improve access to dermatology care, especially for patients living in rural areas.
    • The Bridge to Better Health

      Gould, Chelsea; Washington, Kayla; Thomas, Joy; Lepp, Erin; May, Stephanie (2021)
      Nutrition education is important for all individuals but most people do not have this knowledge. The lack of nutritional knowledge is a growing problem that contributes to the growth of obesity in Dekalb county. In Dekalb county, approximately 30% of adults and 13% of high school students are obese. Even more people in Dekalb county (73.4% of adults and 79% of youth) do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables per day(CDC, 2013). Objectives: Increasing knowledge of healthy foods Increasing understanding of nutritional value Ability to participate in healthier eating habits Increasing community support for a healthier well-being Identifying barriers to healthy eating Methods: Mercer University College of Health Professions, Department of Public Health, and the professional program in Physician Assistant Studies program partnered with the Bridge at Austin Community Center's leaders, Dr. Stephanie May and Ms. Bernita Reese. Interactive and educational sessions are held online using Zoom. They are open to both males and females of all ages in Dekalb county. Participants filled out a registration form which included information on their name, children�s names, phone number, address, email, race/ethnicity, ages of household members, and what they are looking to learn from the sessions. This intervention is still currently in progress. The goal of the intervention was to help improve health and wellness for participants.
    • The Efficacy Found within the Adlerian Theory

      Varner-Kirkland, Yvonne (2021)
      The purpose of this literature review poster is to present the significance of the Adlerian Theory and its effectiveness as a counseling tool. As a current graduate counseling student with exposure to a plethora of theories, Adlerian Theory closely resonates with me and my personal values. My theoretical orientation paper, written for my Counseling Theory course, demonstrates just how Adlerian Theory resonates with me. Research shows how Alfred Adler�s individual psychology, known as Adlerian Counseling, since its origin in 1912, has risen to be one of the most comprehensive humanistic counseling approaches. Adlerian Counseling is applied to various therapies, e.g. Adventure Therapy (AT), and Adlerian Theory allow for the integration of neuroscience principles into the counseling profession (Miller & Dillman Taylor, 2015). The review showed a limited number of studies on Adlerian Theory (AT) and Adlerian Play Therapy (AdPT); however, the evidence gathered from the literature review supported the efficacy of Adlerian Theory as evidenced by the use of Adlerian Individual Psychology (Adlerian Counseling), Adlerian Therapy (AT), and Adlerian Play Therapy (AdPT).
    • The Growing Attrition in African American Male College Students

      Kyle Smith
      The purpose of this research is to investigate the relevant issues of increased attrition, discuss the current exclusionary practices of stereotype threat and racial battle fatigue, and explore what interventions current universities and higher education faculty are using to correct the present campus diversity and inclusion issues that occur across predominantly white university campus communities and Black men.
    • The positive impacts on the adoption and advancement of patient portals within a healthcare facility.

      Kamra, Navneet; Baskaran, Vikraman (2021)
      The intention of this research study is to encourage clinical facilities that do not have a patient portal system, to encourage them to adapt one for their facility or to upgrade outdated patient portal when necessary. Patient portal systems, now more than ever, are a powerful tool for patients to be able to keep track of their health. Despite the many reasons to adopt a patient portal system, many practices are still reluctant to provide a patient portal system for their patients, in fear that they may be making the right investment or may be jeopardizing their provider-patient relationship. The question this research will answer is, Is patient turnout and satisfaction positively impacted based on the adoption of a patient portal within a healthcare facility? In order to answer this questions, It is important to research what patients want out of a patient portal and how patient portals can increase patient satisfaction. Ultimately patient satisfaction is correlated to an increased number of patients/new patients.An increased number of patients generally means a potential increase in revenue. To do this research Lifeline Primary Care Clinic was chosen which is a clinic that has switched through three patient portals over the years; e-clinicalworks, Healow app (after merging with eclinicalworks in 2014) and AthenaHealth. The clinic has also expanded into other locations as well. Thus making this clinic an ideal facility for the proposed research. Another factor of choosing this clinic was due to the vast data the clinic has produced that is relevant to this research and health IT overall. In order to start the research process, a literature review was conducted in regards to the patient portal, as well as how they were perceived by both patients and healthcare providers. Upon reviewing the relevant articles on the topic, a methodology was mapped out to be able to collect patient data from each portal implementation and transition to be able to detect whether or not each transition had increased number of current and new patients due to the potential decrease in phone times by the staff with the portals having appointment and messaging systems. The data from these findings would then be compiled in an excel spreadsheet to show upward or stagnant trends in a line graph. Along with this, survey questions were generated through surveymonkey.com to be able to assess patient satisfaction by the current and by past patient portals based on preferences. Another survey was also created for the medical staff as well, in order to see the staff�s perception on patient portals and if the patient portals have impacted their workload in a positive manner or not.
    • The Progression From My ePortfolio To My Writing Major

      Cantrell, April (2021)
      Developing an ePortfolio purposefully walks you through the process of understanding and conceptualizing your general education and major courses with your specific path followed to develop and explain your major. Simply knowing that I wanted to write or be a writer wasn't necessarily specific enough. Why did I want to be a writer? Did I have a purpose? The ePortifolio was a light to the path that helped me understand that I want to write to heal others as they read and to self-heal the writers emotional struggles. Narrowing the broad concept of a major in writing to the narrow concept of writing with the intention to heal others and myself through writing is the result of my ePortfolio.
    • The Use of Metformin in Breast Cancer Treatment in Non-Diabetic Women

      Weintraub, Taylor; Mattingly, Jill (2021)
      Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death of women in the United States, with approximately 245,000 new cases being diagnosed each year. The current primary treatment is lumpectomy or total mastectomy, radiation therapy, along with adjuvant hormone and chemotherapy as indicated for metastatic disease. While each of these invasive treatments are effective at killing cancer cells, they are extremely toxic to every cell in the patient�s body. Metformin, a biguanide, is the most commonly prescribed drug for diabetes mellitus type 2. It�s mechanism of action works by decreasing the amount of glucose synthesized in the liver and increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle cells. Studies have already shown that diabetic patients taking metformin have a decreased risk of developing breast cancer, in addition to a better prognosis in those diagnosed with breast cancer. However, there has been no conclusion about the benefit of metformin in non-diabetic patients with breast cancer. This review presentation describes the numerous proposed anti-tumor mechanisms of metformin, such as its ability to enhance the effects chemotherapy, and inhibit cancer cell growth before and after it has begun. Metformin is a well-tolerated, inexpensive and safe medication. If its effectiveness is proven as an adjuvant treatment, breast cancer patients could reach remission with less harmful radiation and chemotherapy.
    • Topical and Transdermal Iontophoretic Delivery of Methotrexate in Healthy and Psoriatic Human Skin

      Vora, Deepal; Somayaji, Mahadevabharath R.; German, Carrie; Banga, Ajay K. (2021)
      Psoriasis is a condition of the skin which involves scales, dry patches, and inflammation. Methotrexate (logP: -0.236, MW: 454.44 g/mol) is administered orally or intravenously to treat psoriasis. The first pass metabolism and systemic side effects associated can be avoided by transdermal delivery. We investigated the iontophoretic delivery of methotrexate using healthy and psoriatic human skin to understand the effect of skin�s disease condition on topical and transdermal delivery. In vitro permeation testing using vertical Franz diffusion cell were conducted. Cathodal iontophoresis (0.5 mA/sq.cm for 4 h) delivered a significantly higher total amount of methotrexate into the skin and receptor when compared to that delivered by passive diffusion and anodal iontophoresis. A current density of 0.2 mA/sq.cm using cathodal iontophoresis and 10mg/mL donor concentration was optimized to obtain the target delivery through healthy human skin. There was no significant difference in receptor delivery for psoriatic skin as compared to healthy skin, while significantly higher methotrexate delivery in skin was observed for psoriatic skin as compared to healthy skin. Thus, cathodal iontophoresis delivered a significantly higher total amount of methotrexate as compared to passive diffusion and anodal iontophoresis. Significantly higher delivery in skin and hence significantly higher total delivery was observed for psoriatic skin as compared to healthy skin.
    • Under The Law (The Invention of Race and Contemporary Life Experiences)

      Crews, Gregory (2021)
      Six Hours of Separation and a Lawless Legal Legacy: A Tale of Two Men and the Atlanta Police June 2020 “I’m terrified at the moral apathy – the death of the heart which is happening in my country. These people have deluded themselves for so long, that they really don’t think I’m human. I base this on their conduct, not on what they say, and this means that they have become, in themselves, moral monsters.” James Baldwin The Wendy’s on University Avenue in Atlanta is closed. There is a vehicle parked in the drive-through. It is around 11 p.m. on June 23, 2020. A man is asleep in the vehicle. He is black. The up-scale hotel six miles away in downtown Atlanta closes its doors at 2 a.m. in compliance with the CDC’s protocol for dealing with COVID. Five professional black men maintain security. It is June 24, 2020, around 4 a.m. Outside at the entrance a man is drunk and demands entry. The security staff asks if he is a guest. He answers in the negative. The staff asks if he is visiting a guest in the hotel. He answers in the negative. He is irate. He wants to enter the hotel. The security staff explains the COVID policy of the hotel. They do not allow him to enter. He threatens to “beat the asses” of the security staff. He tries unsuccessfully to push past hotel guests entering the hotel. He is white. The police are summoned. A policeman arrives at Wendy’s. He is white. A policeman arrives at the hotel. He is black. The Wendy’s policeman awakens the sleeping black man. The policeman asks him to move his car to a parking space and calls for back-up help. The man quietly moves his car. The black policeman approaches the white man and speaks kindly to him. Another white policeman arrives at the Wendy’s. The white policemen ask the man how much alcohol he has consumed. He explains that he has just come from his four-year-old daughter’s birthday party. The black policeman at the hotel manages to calm the aggressive white man. The white policemen at Wendy’s ask the black man to get out of his car. He does what they ask. They administer a sobriety test. The black policeman at the hotel does not administer a sobriety test. The man at Wendy’s tells the white policemen that he has friends nearby and will walk there. The black policeman at the hotel informs the security team that the man lives close to the hotel. The white policemen at Wendy’s tell the man he cannot walk to his friend’s house. They take out their handcuffs. The black policeman at the hotel helps the white man into his patrol car and drives him home. The man at Wendy’s panics and runs. The police claim he grabbed the taser from one of them and shot at them. They shoot him twice in the back. They handcuff him. He is bleeding. The black man dies while the white policeman stands on his back. On October 23, 1705 at a General Assembly in the city of Williamsburg, Virginia a law was passed that reads as follow: And if any slave resist his master, or owner, or other person, by his or her order, correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction, it shall not be accounted felony; but the master, owner and every such other person so giving correction, shall be free and acquit of all punishment and accusation for the same, as if such accident has never happened: And also, if any negro, mulatto, or Indian, he or she so offering, shall, for every such offense, proved by the oath of the party, receive on his or her bare back, thirty lashes, well laid on; cognizable by a justice of the peace for that count wherein such offence shall be committed. What does it feel like to be a man of color in our current society? It feels like the first three minutes on a roller coaster. It begins when you hear that deafening click of the safety belt that locks you into that uncomfortable, dense seat, and the trembling motor starts to hum. At that moment you understand something is about to happen, and you are no longer in control. The machine slowly begins to move forward and then creeps up the steep hill very slowly until it reaches a serene place almost at the top where it pauses for a slight moment. You instantly catch a view of the breathtaking skyline. Then all of a sudden, your stomach feels like it’s in the back of your throat and your breath escapes you. You realize your only option is to hold on for dear life and or just enjoy the ride. I realize that my fascinating dark brown skin is that uncomfortable seat, and fear is the motor that begins to hum. The fear in question is the inability to trust the people designated to protect you. Who would ever think that falling asleep in the common area on a college campus, falling asleep in your car, barbecuing in the local park, or walking around in your front yard could cause someone to call -the police on you? Men of color have to always be aware of these potentialities. My first encounter with the men in blue happened on a warm autumn evening when I was in my early twenties. The sun had begun to go down, but it wasn’t yet dark enough for the street lights to come on. My sister and I lived in an apartment in Forestville, Maryland, located in Prince George’s (P.G.) county. P. G. County’s law enforcement had a reputation for being very aggressive in their interactions with people of color. Across the street from our apartment complex was a Seven Eleven convenience store. It was a hot afternoon. Hoping to cool off, I walked to the Seven Eleven to get myself a cherry slushy. I grooved to the music on the radio en route to the store. About a hundred meters from the Seven Eleven, I watched a police car abruptly enter the apartment complex. The police cruiser quickly approached me and stopped. Uninterested in what the officer was doing, I continued to pursue the slushy. The young officer aggressively jumped out of the vehicle with his hand on his weapon and began yelling at me. I looked around and felt a little confused about why this officer had yelled and walked towards me in such a confrontational manner. He asked me where I was going. I told him, and then asked him why he had approached me. He shouted out, “Shut the Fuck up! I’m asking the questions.” I asked him if he wanted to see my ID. I reached in my pocket, pulled out my ID, and gave it to him. I placed my military ID on top of my driver’s license to see what his reaction would be. He snatched the ID cards out of my hand and held both up so that he could see them better. I watched his entire demeanor toward me change. His harsh, cold face softened to a warm, devilish grin. He said, “You know, my brother is in the Marine Corps.” I looked at him sternly and said, “Don’t patronize me. Why did you stop me?” He claimed he had received a call, and I fit the description of the person from the call. I asked him what was the person’s description--a black man? “Not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed until it is faced.” James Baldwin