Comparison of Particle Deposition of E-Cigarette with Traditional Tobacco Cigarette Smoke
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TitleComparison of Particle Deposition of E-Cigarette with Traditional Tobacco Cigarette Smoke
AbstractComparison of Particle Deposition of E-Cigarette with Traditional Tobacco Cigarette Smoke Emily Turner, Madison Holloway, Michelle Jung, Olivia Kight, Gunhee Lee, Sarah Spalding, Sinjae Hyun, PhD. Biomedical Engineering Department, Mercer University Introduction: Over the past twenty years, vaping has become popular among young people with more than 3.6 million middle and high schoolers using e-cigarettes in 2020. (1) The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in particle characteristics and deposition of e-cigarette aerosol versus that of traditional tobacco smoke. Particle diameter and concentration for different air flow rates and flavor pods were tested on e-cigarettes to establish control conditions for the following trials. The data was used to simulate inhalation of e-cigarettes and traditional tobacco cigarette aerosols that had undergone the same testing process. The Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) was used to analyze various morphological models of human airways. Materials and Methods: An e-cigarette cartridge was attached to a power supply of 3.7 V, as well as two branches of tubing on the other end. One of the branches was connected to a vacuum pump to imitate inhalation; the other was attached to a Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer (WPS), with an intake rate of 1 LPM, to measure the particle sizes ranging from 10 nm to 10 microns. Once testing for e-cigarettes was completed, we altered the setup to accommodate traditional tobacco cigarettes. An airtight enclosure was made, with an adapter to allow a tube to be directly attached to the cigarette. The data was analyzed using MPPD software to determine if the aerosol deposition changes for 6 different lung airway morphological models. The stochastic 12 bpm model was chosen as a general model representing an average 40-year male. Its predecessor, the Yeh Schum 5-lobe model, was also tested as a lung model. The six models tested were the stochastic model for normal breathing (12 bpm); the stochastic model with lowered breathing frequency (6 bpm) mimicking breathing impairment; the stochastic model with elevated breathing frequency (25 bpm) mimicking lung disease; the Yeh Schum 5-lobe model; and two age-specific (14 and 21 years) 5-lobe models. Statistical analyses demonstrated no significant difference between the means of the six models; further analysis showed that Age 21, Stochastic 25 bpm, and Stochastic 6 bpm models were different in pulmonary deposition, and Age 14, Age 21, and Stochastic 6 bpm models were different in whole lung deposition. Results: The concentration of particles was observed by a measure of density in grams per cubic centimeter for different ranges of particle diameters. For the diameter range 1.08x10^-2 to 9.5 ?m, the e-cigarette aerosol was produced by heating the liquid in the cartridge, which produced a concentration range of 5x10^-17 to 6x10^-9 g/cc. For the diameter range 0.01 to 9.6 ?m the smoke produced by the tobacco cigarette had a concentration range of 0 to 7x10^-8 g/cc. The particle diameter ranges analyzed were comparable, but the e-cigarette produced much smaller particle concentration ranges (5x10^-17 to 6x10^-9 << 0 to7x10^-8). Of the total measurements, tobacco cigarettes deposit particles at a rate of 185% higher than e-cigarettes. E-cigarette (stochastic 12 bpm model) aerosol was compared to conventional cigarette smoke particle deposition in human lungs. When a continuous particle deposition path (g/cc) was traced through 28 generations of a human lung model, the conventional cigarette model had significantly higher deposition of particles. Of cigarette smoke, 13% was deposited in the lungs; whereas 7% was deposited for e-cigarettes; of the total cigarette smoke deposited, 63% was deposited in the pulmonary region, compared to 44% deposited in the same region by e-cigarettes. Conclusions: The distribution of particle deposition varies between e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. It was determined that tobacco cigarettes produce a much larger number of nanoparticles than the e-cigarette. Though the distribution of e-cigarette particle deposition is less than that of tobacco cigarettes, large quantities of particles are deposited into human lungs. In the future, we plan to conduct hygroscopic trials for e-cigarette and tobacco cigarettes through simulated inhalation in a temperature and moisture controlled environment to better imitate the human airways environment. Acknowledgements: Mercer University Seed Grant; Engineering Scholars Program References: (1) Wang, T. W.; Neff, L. J.; Park-Lee, E.; Ren, C.; Cullen, K. A.; King, B. A. E-Cigarette Use Among Middle and High School Students � United States, 2020. Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2020, MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2020 (69), 1310�1312. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6937e1.